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Archive for August 15th, 2010

ARCTURIAN CORRIDOR PART III

Posted by Admin on August 15, 2010

ARCTURIAN CORRIDOR PART III
MANY PORTALS
1aug2010
HEART CHAKRA

As I sit here in our cabin in the forest and look out the windows onto a variety of shades and textures of green, I understand why the Heart Chakra is green. The sounds of the city are replaced by an overwhelming Quiet, which is too often interrupted by the sound of the old refrigerator. But then the refrigerator stops, and it is back to the Quiet again.

Within this Quiet is a deep peace and connection with the green just outside the window. I understand now how the frequency of light that reflects from the Heart Chakra is green, for green is the color of growing life. The green collects the prana from the Sun to feed the trees, flowers, vines and grass, just as our Heart collects the love/prana of the Sun to feed our body.

The trunk, limbs and branches are the body of trees and perhaps the leaves are their Hearts. It must be difficult for the trees in the winter, when their Hearts are not available to them. As humans, sometimes we go into a winter in our life, where our Hearts feel unavailable, and we feel alone and unloved. In spiritual terms this time is call the “Dark Night of the Soul.”

It is during these times that we must take a lesson from the trees and find the love that has been stored in our “trunks” when the leaves were verdant and green. Maybe, spring and summer feel far away from us, but we must remember that Gaia, our Earth Mother, holds all the love stored by every tree on Her entire planet.

If we can take some time from our busy life to BE with Gaia so that She can share this storehouse of love with our aching Hearts, it will help us through our long winter. In our demanding city lives, we become too busy to remember that Nature, whether it is an ocean, a mountain, a forest, a park or our own yard, can fill our hearts with love. This love actually creates a portal through which we can return to spring.

Let us take a moment to walk through one of Gaia’s many portals to New Earth—The Redwood Portal:

THE REDWOOD PORTAL
2aug2010
http://www.youtube.com/user/suzannelie#p/u/1/qOFffe67UVY

THE NEW AGE

We have become too detached from the Earth in our quest to find the God in the sky. The Piscean Age of the last two thousand years had led us to believe that if we were good, if we were deserving, then we could find love far off in Heaven—when we died. These teachings separated us from the land and sea and from Gaia’s healing/loving Nature.

Now, as the cycle of that Age is complete and we enter the Aquarian Age, the beliefs that were dictated to us by others are being replaced by the Knowing that we find within our SELF. This Knowing that awaits our discovery is within our Hearts, where the love and the dawning of spring are stored.

Spring is coming for us all and none too soon. Our dearest planet has suffered gravely from our perception of Her as a “thing.” We have forgotten that Earth is a living, breathing being. Of course, every terrible thing we have done to the planet, we have done also to other humans. We have become lost in a Dark Night of the Soul. Humanity has regressed from the Divine Expression of Spirit to the tormentor and savior of a lost world.

After the final destruction of Atlantis and Lemuria, we entered a planetary season of decline and fall, which progressed into a long, harsh winter. There were, of course, times, seasons, cultures and people that somehow remembered the Truth of Spirit’s unconditional love and multidimensional light. These cultures and people were beacons in the long, dark night.

COMPLETING CYCLES

We are completing the 25,2556 year cycle of the Procession of the Equinox, the amount of time it takes for our Solar System to transit all the way around our Milky Way Galaxy. Halfway through this cycle, our ancestors on Lemuria and Atlantis were at the “back door” of the ascension cycle, just as we are now entering the “front door.”

It is said that those who do not know their history, are doomed to repeat it. Do we know the history of these expressions of our greater SELF? Do we remember the mistakes that were made then, so that we don’t make them again?  In fact, many of us who chose to embody at this time, swore to remember our lives on those distant worlds.

Why would we swear to remember them? The answer is that those who remember their history can learn from the past and use it in the present. Those who take responsibility for their mistakes can forgive themselves for making them. With this forgiveness, we can dare to remember the reasons why the mistakes were made and correct the problems before they had a chance to begin again.

Humanity is the only animal that spoils its own nest. If we can find the reason why we have done that, then, maybe, hopefully, it will not be too late to correct the great harm we have done to our Mother. Then, rather than destroy our world, we can ascend it, and our selves, into the next cycle of experience, the fifth dimension.

It is for these reasons that we now return to worlds of Lemuria and Atlantis that have been lost beneath the sea. We return with the hope that we can remember our SELF that was a member of those realities. There are as many versions of these worlds as there are people to remember them, for there are myriad parallel realities. Unfortunately, all of these parallel realities ended in destruction, for it was the completion of their cycle. The details of this destruction are many, but the overall picture is the same.

Lemuria was destroyed through misuse of Love and Atlantis was destroyed through misuse of Power. Neither one was able to gain enough Wisdom to learn from their mistakes before it was too late. Therefore, rather then ascension, these worlds experienced destruction. However, many of the Lemurians and Atlantians did experience personal ascension, and others found homes in Inner Earth where they have been able to re-create their peak society. These members of Inner Earth will assist Gaia again, as our Solar System moves through the Front Door of the planetary womb, the Galactic Center. We have come half way around the Galaxy since their decline and fall. Have we gained that Wisdom yet?

THE SEA PORTAL
3aug2010
http://www.youtube.com/user/suzannelie#p/u/0/XGqz2Y-6EC0
TAKING THE CALL

The sky absorbs the Light today
It shines above to show the way
For in this moment the NOW is HERE
To think about what we hold dear

We’ve no time left to moan and pout
For now we know, what it’s about
It time for us to look inside
Beyond our fear and past our pride

The Truth will soon be free for all
To push away or “take the call”
We look away, or take a stand
To save the sea, the sky, the land

Protect the Earth, She is our Mother
She is our SELF, there is NO “other”
We are all ONE, we Know inside
And from that Truth, we cannot hide

We aren’t alone. We have resources,
If ALL the world can join forces
We ARE the planet that we have squandered
For, from our SELF, we all have wandered

The greed of now and in the past
Must be released, it cannot last
Our Mother calls, “It’s time now dears.
“Give me your love, I’ll take your fears.

“We need each other more than ever
“Although that bond, some try to sever.
“Love them most, for they are lost.
“They knew their game would have a cost.

“Yet, still they want what’s been before
“But, we’ve had enough, and don’t want more.
“So in their choices, we will not follow.
“Our New World lies just through that hollow.

“So reach right through and deep within
“To find the ONE you’ve always been.
“The Game is closing, it’s the final call
“To go Home NOW, once and for all!”

SWITCHING CHANNELS

Blessings. We are the Arcturians, here to usher you back into the Arcturian Corridor. Just as there are earthly portals, which are opened by your love for Gaia, there are portals in outer space that are opened by your love for Spirit. All of these portals are always available, just beyond the limitations of your third dimensional perceptions. Therefore, we wish to further educate you regarding the care and maintenance of your new Operating System, which will expand your perceptions beyond all physical limitations.

By now your Multidimensional Operating System is fully online. You have “restarted your computer/brain”** and are ready to switch channels onto this new system of operating in daily life. The process of this switch is to remember from minute-to-minute that you are different than you have been, likely since your lives before the Fall of Atlantis over 10,000 years ago.
**(See July 2010 newsletter http://multidimensions.com/TheVision/integration_newsletters.html)

It will be helpful for you to remember your lives in which you were a Priest, Priestess, Shaman and/or Healer, so that you may bring that Knowing into your current incarnation. In the lives in which you attained multidimensional consciousness, you could perceive the physical plane from a higher dimensional expression of your SELF. Therefore, it is important to bring these realities into your present memory to counteract your “lives-long” habit of viewing life through a third dimensional viewpoint. Some of these spiritual lives were “past lives,” whereas others were “parallel realities.”

There are many parallel realities, and they resonate to the myriad frequencies and sub-frequencies of the multidimensional matrix for planet Earth. To explain this concept, we ask that you imagine a stone that is thrown into a still pond. Now visualize the many circles in the water around the stone’s point of entry. The circles closest to the point of entry are clearest to your third dimensional expression, and each echoing circle becomes less and less distinct as it moves away from that point. It is the same with the many frequencies of Earth. Earth is like the stone thrown, not into water but into space.

The echoes of Earth’s many expressions of reality are densest closest to the physical planet for they hold more matter, which lowers the resonance of that circle. The versions of reality further from Earth’s physical expression hold less-and-less matter, which allows them to resonate to higher-and-higher frequencies. This amplification of resonance moves all the way through the fourth dimension, through the fifth, and into the sixth. The integration of the multidimensional light and unconditional love of the Flow from the ONE activates your Multidimensional Operating System. This activation gives you the capabilities to perceive these higher dimensional rings of reality as they echo into the higher dimensions.

By the time the inhabitants of Earth are able to perceive the fifth and sixth dimensional expressions of Earth, they are no longer planet-bound and have long since taken to inter-galactic and inter-dimensional travel. That “time” is closer than you may think. In fact, this reality exists NOW, just beyond your third dimensional perceptions. Through continually accepting and integrating the multidimensional light and unconditional love of the ONE, you can complete the “switch of channels” from the limited Third Dimensional Operating System to the unlimited Multidimensional Operating System.
The challenge is that, even after you have completed your transition into your Multidimensional Operating System, you will need to release the emotional addictions and defense mechanisms that have protected you from the dangers of your third dimensional reality. These behaviors and addictions that once protected you, now make it difficult for you to “take the leap” into a new way of living. You dare not “drop your shield” for fear that the dangers of your formerly polarized reality will attack you. This fear makes it extremely difficult for you to accept the very multidimensional light and unconditional love that will raise your consciousness beyond those dangers, once and for all.

4aug2010

LOOKING INTO YOUR SELF

Through remembering realities in which you embraced the unconditional nature of love which Flows from the fifth dimension and beyond, you can replace your old, protective mechanism with the love and light of the ONE. Unfortunately, most of your spiritual traditions since the “Fall” have had a Heaven, Nirvana, Afterworld, etc., which were actually in the fourth dimension. Since the fourth dimension still holds polarity, even in its highest octaves, there remains a conditionality to love. This conditionality teaches that love is something to be earned or achieved.

It is only through expanding your consciousness into the fifth dimension and beyond that you will be able to fully embrace, and live, the concept of unconditional love. Once your consciousness is filled with unconditional love, you will be able to realize that your old habits and emotional addictions were like training wheels on a child’s bicycle. These training wheels protected you from falling. However, once you realize that you can maintain balance on your own, the training wheels (habits and emotional addictions) slow you down and limit your ability to “enjoy the ride.”

On the other hand, once you have released your third dimensional limitations the work really begins. We say the word “work,” for releasing judgment in a world filled with fear, such as your own, takes a tenacity and determination that feels like work. In order to release your old coping mechanism of differentiating between dark/fear (which you move away from) and light/love (which you move towards), you must fully embrace the fact that YOU resonate beyond the reach of either of these options. In other words, you will need to release your habitual perception of your SELF as being your earth vessel and see your SELF as being the ONE who is using that earth vessel as a means to more intimately experience the third dimension.

When the resonance of your consciousness is beyond polarity, unconditional love can rule your every thought, for you KNOW that you are protected at all times. With the knowledge of this protection, you will not need to judge others as a means to protect yourself. Even more importantly, when your consciousness is filled with unconditional love, you can perceive the “big picture” of the small fragment of your SELF who is grounded in the third dimension.

YOU are a magnificent Being of multidimensional light and unconditional love. Just as your physical body can be lying on a bed with your hand reaching down to touch the floor, your Lightbody can be in the fifth dimension with your lower resonance of SELF extended down to touch the third dimension. To better understand:

  • Visualize that your physical self is lying on your bed with your hand touching the floor…
  • How does your hand experience the floor beside your bed?…
  • Imagine that you are your hand looking up at your body…
  • How does your hand perceive your body?…

NOW:

  • Visualize that your Multidimensional SELF is in the fifth dimension with your third dimensional expression touching the physical world…
  • How does your physical self perceive third dimensional life?…
  • Imagine that you are your grounded one looking up at your Lightbody…
  • How does your physical self perceive your Lightbody?…

From your third dimensional perspective, you can see many powerful humans who willingly harm people and planet in their endless need for power and possessions. On the other hand, from the perspective of your fifth dimension SELF, you are united with the higher expression of these very same people. From your higher perspective, you realize that your grounded once can only perceive the lowest resonance of these fifth dimensional ones who are still “logged in” to the “Power Over Others” chapter of the 3D Game of Separation and Limitation.

You may even ask the fifth dimensional ones why their lower resonance is still logged in to that Power-over Game. Since you are coming from the perception of the fifth dimension, you would ask this question in the same detached manner in which you may ask someone why they are enjoying that particular Reality Show. Have you noticed how popular Reality TV has become? This appetite for a different reality, or several different realities, is actually the beginning of multidimensional consciousness.

Planet Earth, Gaia, is the expression of a great Multidimensional Being whose consciousness is so vast that it must be contained in the body of a planet. Gaia’s consciousness is now expanding beyond the point that it can be encompassed in a planet, and She wishes to expand Her expression of SELF into that of a Star. As Gaia becomes a star, Her inhabitants will expand their expression into being a planet. Fortunately, for those still logged into the 3D Game, this process is commencing. On the other hand, those whose consciousness is still limited to the third and fourth dimension will become increasingly uncomfortable.

A person whose consciousness resonates primarily to third/fourth dimension will have great difficulty with the instant manifestation of EVERY thought and emotion. The instant manifestation of their fear will not be enjoyable, nor will they like their every thought and emotion being read by others. The many secrets of the lower worlds do not exist in the fifth dimension. Therefore, those who still wish to live in separation from others will not be comfortable in that frequency of Earth.

With your expanding multidimensional perceptions, the intentions of others will be increasingly transparent, as you will perceive these intentions within your own form. In the same manner, you will telepathically hear within your mind and empathically feel within your body. Higher perceptions operate within the Unity of the ONE. You will no longer experience life as outside of you. Instead, you will know that all life is within.

Fortunately, your Multidimensional Consciousness will assist you in understanding this concept of “All life is within the ONE, which YOU are within.” Furthermore, your Multidimensional Operating System will allow you to unconditionally love ALL life. The protection that this unconditional love provides far surpasses any emotional addictions or behavioral defense mechanism.

SEEDING OF EARTH

There are many different versions of humanity because Earth has been “seeded” by numerous worlds throughout the Milky Way, as well as other Galaxies. To tell our story about the seeding of Earth we start, not at the beginning, but many cycles and millions of years after the initial seedings of Earth. A seeding of a planet is much like a seeding of the ground. Seeds are planted in the hope that they will grow and prosper. In the same fashion, beings from different planets, galaxies and dimensions, planted their “seeds” in the hope that they could live, grow and prosper on a new, young (in planetary terms) world.

We, the Arcturians, were among the first to plant our seeds on planet Earth. Hence, we will assist our grounded one is telling this tale. Before we discuss the relatively new societies of Lemuria and Atlantis, we encourage you to remember your Galactic Family. In order to do so, you will have to dust off the cobwebs of your many incarnations during the Piscean Age in which the Sun revolved around the Earth, and you were the most evolved planet in all of the Galaxy, or even the Universe.

It takes a strong person to recognize their weaknesses and an even stronger person to recognize the many lies that have limited their expansion into SELF. Furthermore, and most important to understand what we are saying, you will need to release the fear that other civilizations are as barbaric as your own. Yes, there are indeed some civilizations that function under the “Service to Self” paradigm, just as many Earth societies have since the Fall of Atlantis. However, most of those galactic civilizations have now evolved into the Unity Consciousness, which you are on the cusp of embracing.

As you will later discover, it was some of these “Service to Self” civilizations that were greatly responsible for the decline and fall, rather than the rise and ascension, of these two great civilizations. Just as the civilizations of Lemuria and Atlantis fell, there were some of the members of these worlds who did ascend. There were, also, those who took refuge underground within the body of Gaia to await their next opportunity to ascend. That time is NOW.

Because these refugees entered Inner Earth before Earth plummeted into Her lowest frequency, these beings live just one half octave above your current frequency of expression. Auspiciously, because of your Solar system’s completion of the Great Cycle of the Procession of the Equinox, this places Earth within a close proximity to the Galactic Center, which is increasingly raising the planet’s resonant frequency. Earth is now preparing to enter the 2,000 year Golden Age of Aquarius, in which your Solar System will enjoy the constant stream of multidimensional light and unconditional love emanating form the Galactic Center.

The influence of this multidimensional energy will allow those who can accept this gift the ability to hear the truth as told by those who have ascended, as well as those who have waited in Inner Earth. Because truth is relative to the perception of those who speak it, there are many stories of the rise, peak, decline and fall of the great civilizations of Lemuria and Atlantis. As We, the Arcturians, share our perspective, we welcome you to allow your perspective to awaken and grow within your consciousness, as well.

OUR STORY BEGINS

5aug2010

LEMURIAN AND ATLANTIS TIMELINE

We begin our story at the beginning of the last Procession around the Equinox, 26,556 Earth years ago. A wonderful Golden Age was bringing the Cycle of Lemuria to its completion, while Atlantis was living within the Peak of its society. Lemuria and Atlantis were meant to bring Gaia into the polarization, which you have been experiencing since their fall. Lemuria was to be the “Mother Civilization” and represent the Flow of the electron, receptive/inflow, feminine polarity of energy, experienced as Love. Atlantis, on the other hand, was to be the “Divine Father” and represent the Flow of the proton, expressive/outflow, masculine polarity of energy, experienced as Power.

Through the marriage of feminine and masculine, Love and Power, the two landed expressions of Gaia could gain the great Wisdom to Ascend. Unfortunately, instead of a beautiful bonding and resulting ascension, their “marriage,” as with many earthly marriages, ended in a long divorce in which both of them lost everything. Part of the reason for this “divorce” was that their galactic parents never approved of this marriage. These Service to Self “parents” wanted to maintain control of the people and possessions of Earth. Power over others and greed was the cause of downfall then, just as it is now.

It was the children of the families who suffered the most. Those children are you. As Gaia moves again into the energy of planetary unity and possible ascension, the marriage of ALL polarities into the ONE is your best hope for ascension. As we tell the age-old story of love and power, peak and fall, unity and separation, we ask you to listen with your Multidimensional SELF, so that you will remember YOUR Truth. Through remembering your Truth, your own perception of this story, you can take the lessons from your distant “past” and bring them into your “present” to assist you in creating a “future” of ascension within the HERE of the NOW.

As we re-enter the Arcturian Corridor, we will sweep our consciousness into the sixth dimension to heal the damage done to the Divine Blueprint of Gaia by the destruction of Lemuria and Atlantis. Both of these realties resonated to a frequency that we would now call the fourth dimension. It was not within the Divine Plan to create a reality at the third dimensional level, for the absence of Spirit would make future evolution too difficult. Unfortunately, after the fall of Atlantis, Earth was so shaken on her axis that Her resonance dropped into the third dimension. It was then that the fourth dimension became the reality that vibrated as the fourth dimensional aura of Gaia, whereas Her body—Earth—resonated to the third dimension.

The creators of the Earth experiment of “life in an extremely polarized reality” were very concerned for they knew that the polarities of the third dimension were too harsh to allow an easy integration of spirit into matter. It is this integration of spirit into matter that allows the grounded ones to find and live in-between the extremes of polarity. In this way, the grounded humans could experience the lessons of living in a polarized reality, while having the safety of the center frequency of the ONE where all matter is still imbued with spirit.

All energy travels in circles. Therefore, the end extremes of the circles, such as the very dark/fearful and the extremely light/loving can merge. This merging resembles the bracken water where the fresh water of the river intermingles with the salt water of the ocean. When the fear and love intermingle in this fashion, the fear can appear to be love, and the love can look like fear.

This is the case when humans confuse their fear with love by believing that what they are doing to others is “for their own good.” In the same manner, when love becomes tainted with fear humans need others to prove their love by following their commands and personal needs. It is the fear that they don’t deserve love themselves that drives these people to command that others prove their love by being obedient.

LEMURIA                                                ATLANTIS
6aug20107aug2010

This paradigm began with Lemuria and Atlantis. The extreme scientific, protector, logical polarity of the male energy became ruthless in its plight to protect its people at all costs. On the other hand, Lemuria became so polarized to the feminine side that they became passive to the point of weakness. Then their only power left was thay of escaping into the higher planes. Meanwhile, they missed what the experimentation and hunger for power of the masculine Atlantians was doing to the body of Earth.

WHAT WE HAVE LEARNED

From this experiment of polarized reality on Earth, we have learned that both masculine (proton) and feminine (electron) energies must incorporate Wisdom, Power and Love within their own human earth vessel to serve as a means to find their center point.  Hence, the ATMA, the Three Fold Flame of Wisdom, Power, and Love was placed in the High Heart of every incarnating one. Unfortunately, in most cases, this correction was useless. After the final fall of Atlantis the frequency of Gaia’s body was so low that everyone one was too busy with the business of survival to ever connect with their High Heart.

As you look into your ancient history, you will see how it ignites issues from today. Many of you have a deep-seated fear of abandonment, which may appear to be extreme for your present reality. We the Arcturians, as well as the other members of your Galactic ancestors who are founders of life on Earth, have felt as though we have abandoned the many generations of the descendents of the Lemurian and Atlantian worlds. However, since Earth was created as a free-will planet, we were limited in the manner in which we could assist you.

It pained us greatly to see how you struggled after the fall of Atlantis. Unfortunately, until you, the humans of Earth, asked for our assistance, we, the Arcturians, Pleaidians, Sirians, as well as others, have only been able to speak to you through the awakened humans who asked us to communicate through them. Their call needed to be backed by great tenacity and dedication, for it takes many years to fully train a grounded one to receive and successfully translate our message of Light Language into linear, third dimensional language.

Fortunately, as the frequency of Earth is rising, more and more of us are able to incarnate on Earth. Furthermore, with the expansion of human consciousness, our incarnated ones are able to more easily understand and translate our messages. We wish to invite you who are interested in our communications to simply call us just as you would call on a telephone. Once you have asked for our assistance and guidance, we are free to give it.

It was difficult for us to first watch as Lemuria fell into collapse and then again as Atlantis slipped into it final demise.  We all realized that a greater story was being played out, and we remembered the mistakes that we had made when we, too, were also “children of Spirit.” Just as parents must observe their adult children make the same mistakes as they did, we had to merely observe, and send love, as our Earthy children made the same mistakes that we had.

Lemurians and Atlantians experienced a long peak of their society and eventual decline. This birth, rise, peak and decline of civilizations was the pattern for the remainder of that 25,2556 year cycle. Now that the close of this cycle is commencing, the Lemurians and Atlantians who have remained in Inner Earth and/or have incarnated again in this time zone will have another try at the ascension energy of the Galactic Center. We have watched many cycles of your evolution from our higher dimensional perspective, and many of us have taken earth vessels, so that we may be able to directly assist in this moment of great transition.

ENTERING THE CORRIDOR

With the conclusion of our introduction, we ask you to re-enter our Corridor. Just as you have used the power of your imagination to step through the Redwood and the Sea Portals, we guide you to step through the space/time portal of our Arcturian Corridor. Once you enter this portal, time collapses into the NOW and space collapses into HERE. The journey through our Corridor is fueled by the power of your imagination, which is fifth dimensional thought, and you will be changing your frequency rather than your location. The progress of your journey through the Corridor is determined, not by your desire, but by your state of consciousness.

When you are within the Corridor, you are within your SELF who is within the ONE. This Oneness ignites your highest creative powers of thought, emotion and imagination. For every second that you can believe that you are living life in the fifth dimension and beyond, you are creating that reality for yourself and for the planet. Hence, remember to periodically view your life from the perspective of the fifth dimension. In this manner, you will begin to realize the many ways in which your life is already resonating to the fifth dimension.

Your old habits and addictions to fear and complaining were based on the Piscean Age in which hard work and suffering were noble. As you enter your dawning Aquarian Age, those old habits will be easily replaced with the peace and joy of living in Unity with all life. Therefore, we ask you to turn around in your mind to see your life as we do…

Do you see how your aura expands far above, below and around you?
Do you see how each kind thought and action expands your aura and makes your heart glow?

Observe how this glow of your heart precedes you in your earthly endeavors and protects you at night when you sleep.

Observe how you influence all the people in your every day life…
See how your aura interacts with your environment, your yard, the freeway, your pets, animals, birds, insects…

Watch how Gaia responds to the color of your aura…
Note how Her plants and animals respond to your admiration…
Pay attention to how the atmosphere wavers as you walk through it…

YOU are a powerful Multidimensional Being, just now emerging from your cocoon of doubt and fear. Turn around again to see that the Arcturian Corridor is directly in front of you…

Are you ready to be your SELF?

Are you ready to BE the Planet?

Are you ready to enter the Corridor?

If the answer is YES,

Enter the Corridor NOW!

8aug2010

Please visit :
http://suzanneliephd.blogspot.com/
http://www.youtube.com/user/suzannelie
http://www.multidimensions.com/TheVision/meditationdownloads.html
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Independence of India

Posted by Admin on August 15, 2010

Independence of India

¤ Sailing of San Gabriel To India

Mahatma GandhiWhen the San Gabriel sailed around the Cape of Good Hope to finally dock at Calicut, a prosperous port and an independent principality on the Malabar Coast in May, 1498, half a century of the Portuguese tentative to find a sea route to India was finally crowned with success.

The man behind the quest was Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) – a devout Roman Catholic whose nightlong vigil in a Lisbon chapel before commending himself to the unsure waters had finally paid off. and if ‘Christians and spices’ were his twin pretext at the outset, da Gama’s successive visits to India, first in 1500 to set up a ‘factory’ or a trading base, then in 1502 to wreak havoc on the port and Arab trading vessels alike, proved that Portugal and its prime sailor had other things on their mind as well.
The Portuguese were probably here to stay, and da Gama was to earn himself the distinction of Governor of all Portuguese possessions in India in the twilight of his life.

While da Gamma paved the way for the Portuguese to India, Dom Alphonso D’Albuquerque (1495-1515) chalked out and consolidated Portugal’s trade routes to India during the sixteenth century.

¤ Portuguese Emerged As New Ruler

Albuquerque was an imperial rather than a commercial emissary of Portugal. Harnessing strategic ports mainly in the Persian Gulf, along the west coast of India and beyond, overrode the need to garner support of the local rulers. This drove him to capture Goa on the west coast of India in 1510, Melaka (Malacca) on the Malay peninsula in 1511, Hormuz at the opening of the Persian Gulf in 1515, Bassein in 1534, Daman and Diu in 1535 and Colombo in 1597. The series of offensives proved that the Portuguese were the new rulers of the roost.

Their mercantile and imperial strategies were paralleled by a drive to convert the masses to Roman Catholic Christianity. Temples disappeared from the Goan landscape to be replaced with churches, monasteries and seminaries. As the Portuguese Viceroy in India, Albuquerque encouraged mixed marriages with the intent of procuring fresh recruits, especially in the form of offsprings, to serve the Portuguese project in India and elsewhere.

However, with the rise of military, political and maritime mights like the Dutch and the English, History forced the Portuguese in India into the wings.

Unable to cast its net much further than Goa after being united to Spain, Portugal’s focus of interest shifted from India to more lucrative lands.

¤ The Arrival of Dutch

The Dutch sailed their ships eastward for the first time in 1595. However, their first stop was not India but Jakarta in Indonesia where they lost no time in establishing their monopoly over the spice trade. India was significant only insofar as it constituted part of the great Asian trade route that the Dutch had developed and that cut through Ceylon and Cape Town.

Even though in 1602, when the Dutch East India Company was chartered, the Dutch harboured no military ambitions about India, around 1605, a fleet of thirty-eight ships dispatched by the Dutch East India Company inflicted a crushing defeat on Portuguese ships off Johore and the Dutch wrested the fortress at Ambiona from Portuguese control. The unstoppable Dutch then went on to seize secret Portuguese maps and oceanic charts detailing the trade routes with India. These were soon to serve as guides to the eastern waters.

¤ Arrival of English

The English entered the East Indies almost as the same time as the Dutch. However, the English were quick to realise that the Dutch were unwilling to share their turf in the East Indies with them. The tenacity with which the Dutch refused to relent on the East Indies forced the British to turn to India. Spices in India abounded in the south but the trade monopoly of the local rulers and other Europeans had to be broken.

The British East India Company was established by the Royal Charter in 1600, and in course of time, the Protestant Dutch and English would embark upon the common project of eroding Catholic Spain and Portugal’s trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean.

It is interesting to note, however, that although the Dutch had their ‘factories’ in Cochin, Nagapatam and even up in Agra, they did not give the idea of military expansion in India much thought. The spice trade was rewarding and they were quite content with just that.

¤ French Also Making Forays Into India

The Dutch and the English were not the only nations to take an interest in India in those days.The seventeenth century also saw the French making forays into India. While the success stories of the Dutch and the British East India Companies were a motivating factor, the reasons for setting up the French East India Company were not mercantile.

The initial wave brought along men of letters, explorers, adventurers, missionaries et al. Jean Baptiste Tavernier and François Bernier’s vivid accounts of the Mughal kingdom and beyond went a long way in moulding Europe’s impressions about this distant, exotic and opulent land.

The French set up their first trading post in 1666 at Surat. The Sultan of Golconda then allowed them to set up another trading post in Masulipatam on the Coromandel Coast in 1669. In 1670, the Sultan gave the French land in Pondicherry. In the next two decades, the French obtained trading concessions in Bengal and Chandernagore, and established a post at Mahe on the Malabar coast of southwest India.

But the French East India Company did not turn out to be as prosperous as the Dutch and the British East India Companies.
Meanwhile, the British had made some important moves.

¤ British Developed Strong Relations With Mughals

Sir Thomas Roe arrived at the Mughal Emperor Jahangir’s court as the envoy of King James I of England, and stayed in India from 1614-1618. While William Hawkins had already initiated successful diplomatic relations with the Mughal court, Roe consolidated them further, gaining in the process not only friends in the Mughal court but also the Emperor’s permission to establish a British East India Company trading post at Surat. Roe’s diplomacy with the Mughals paid off so well that by 1618, the East India Company became their unspoken naval aide.

Henceforth the commercial rise of the British in India was meteoric. By 1661, Bombay was given to Charles II of England as dowry when he married Catherine of Braganza. Bombay was then dutifully passed on to the British East India Company. By 1708, around the dawn of the Modern Indian Era, the British found themselves quite comfortably placed in India, at least commercially.

and Aurangzeb’s exit from Indian History in 1707 and its aftermath were to eventually throw up the new keepers of India’s destiny – the British.

¤ The Decline of Mughal Court

The decline of the Mughal empire after Aurangzeb’s death was shockingly swift. (See Medieval Indian History). Power and glory bowed out to disarray and disgrace The state treasury ran dry. It was clearly an oft repeated moment in History when devoid of will, a dynasty lingered on, waiting to be saved or damned.

¤ The Advent of Nadir Shah

A series of disastrous invasions against Delhi finally broke its spirit. The first of these was led by the famous Persian king, Nadir Shah in 1739. At the time, the court in Delhi was fending off the Maratha offensive.
One of the finest ministers of the Mughal court , Nizam-ul-Mulk met Nadir when the latter arrived near Delhi and talked him out of his initial idea of sacking Delhi by offering him Rs 50,00,000. The matter would have been settled had not one of Nizam’s rival generals at court convinced Nadir Shah that the latter was being short-changed. Delhi’s legendary wealth could not be relinquished for so paltry a sum.

Soon Nadir Shah marched over to Delhi in time to have a khutba read in his name. Unfortunately, it was around the same time that a rumour about Nadir Shah’s death spread in Delhi. Not only was this news greeted with jubilation by the inhabitants of Delhi, some of them went so far as to actually attack a few Iranian soldiers. No one could have forseen the consequences.

On March 11, 1739 an order was issued by Nadir Shah. Delhi witnessed yet another blood bath. Chandni Chowk, the fruit market, the Dariba bazaar and the buildings around the Jama Masjid were burnt to cinders. Each and every inhabitant of the area was killed in retaliation. People living around the area still point at the Khooni Darwaza (Gateway of Slaughter) in the old city and talk of the massacre as though it had taken place only the previous day. The royal treasury was sacked and its contents seized. When Nadir Shah left Delhi after 57 days, he also took along with him the fabulous Peacock Throne of the Mughals and the last remnants of the Mughal pride.

Lead by Ahmad Shah Abdali, an ex-general in Nadir Shah’s army, the Afghans were the next raiders of Delhi. Abdali led as many as seven invasions into India between 1748-1767.

In January 1757, Abdali captured Delhi. What followed was a carnage of the Nadir Shah vintage. After pillaging Delhi, the Afghans overran most of Northern India. It is said that after the sack of Mathura, Brindaban and Gokul, for `seven days the waters of the Jamuna flowed a blood-red colour.’

An outbreak of cholera in Abdali’s army forced him to withdraw, though not before making the Delhi court cough up around 120,000,000 rupees. He also demanded, and got Kashmir, Lahore, Sirhind and Multan. This, unfortunately, was not the last time that Abdali was to invade India.
and a retiring Delhi court would leave it to the Marathas to counter Abdali’s next invasion. Unable to resist the immense riches of Delhi, Abdali stormed the city again. On January 13, 1761, he took on the Maratha confederation, and humbled the Marathas in the third and final battle of Panipat, rooting out the possiblity of Maratha dominion over North India, at least for the next decade.

Abdali returned in 1764, driven once again by his lust not so much for power as for gold. His sixth invasion had the Sikhs, who had by then carved out a kingdom for themselves under the famous Maharaja Ranjit Singh, up in arms. The determined Sikhs, who never allowed the Marathas to establish themselves up north, now put up a stiff resistance. When Abdali invaded India for the last time in 1767, he met his comeuppance at the hands of the Sikhs who then took Lahore and Central Punjab. However the areas extending from Peshawar and beyond remained with Abdali.

¤ The Slow Rise of British

Against this troubled backdrop, the British rise to power was slow, but remarkably steady. Slow because the British had an uphill task to accomplish; first there were the French to deal with. The commercial rivalry amongst the British and the French had its roots in the prevailing political situation in Europe.
As long as the French carried on business in a small way in India, the British left them to themselves. But between 1720 and 1740, the French East India Company’s trade with India recorded almost a ten-fold growth to measure upto half the volume of that the British East India Company at the time. The stakes were too high for either to ignore – especially since the British East India Company generated more than ten percent of England’s revenue.

¤ The Rise of Carnatic War

This was the time when the War of Austrian Succession (1740-48) had broken out in Europe, following Fredrick the Great of Prussia’s seizure of Silesia in 1740. The French and British found themselves in opposing camps in this war. Later, during the Seven Years War (1756-63), both were at loggerheads with each other once again, supporting rival camps. These two European wars were to have an immediate bearing on India’s political destiny.

Between 1746-48, the French and English finally came to blows in the first Carnatic War (1746-48) in the Deccan. Two more of these wars sealed the fate of the French East India Company in India.

The first Carnatic War was perhaps a fallout of the Austrian War of Succession. The fight was over Madras and though the French had captured it, it was given back to the English as part of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748. In the meanwhile the British and French had got their fleets upto the Indian mainland – an important development as the balance of power within the mainland was fast slanting in favour of the Europeans. and Dupleix, the French governor of the time, decided to turn the tide in France’s favour.

A shrewd and resourceful character with great diplomatic skills and a fine understanding of local politics, Dupleix was nevertheless difficult to work with because of his nervous temperament and inadequate military knowledge.

The opportunity Dupleix was waiting for came his way in 1748 when the Nawab of Arcot (in present Tamil Nadu) died leaving behind the question of succession unresolved. Dupleix succeeded in having a Nizam of his choice, Chanda Sahib enthroned. The new Nizam was supported by the old Nawab’s grandson, Muzzafar Jung, and backed by French troops under the able command of de Bussy. The idea was to close in on Madras by surrounding it with French territory.

Everything would have gone off as planned but for Robert Clive who arrived in Madras as a clerk and proved himself to be a brilliant strategist. He laid the seige of Arcot in 1751 with a mere 210 men, turning Dupleix’s dream into a nightmare. Chanda Sahib was killed and a British nominee was placed on the throne of Arcot. Recalled to France in 1754, Dupleix retired in ignominy.

Dupleix was succeeded by Godeheu, who sued for peace with the British. Both the French and the British agreed not to interfere in India’s internal matters and went back to their old positions. The French also agreed to give up everything they had taken so far. Godeheu was denounced for having ‘signed the ruin of the country and the dishonour of the nation’, but the damage was done. The British had emerged much stronger after the second Carnatic War.

The third and final phase of this Anglo-French war for supremacy was precipitated by the Seven Years War in the shape of the third Carnatic War (1756-63). However, despite very fine French generals like de Bussy and Lally, the British inflicted a crushing defeat on the French who ended up losing practically everything they had in India.

The dream of the ‘dominion de l’empire de la France’ in India was over. and thanks to their naval supremacy, greater resources and steadier support from Europe, the British had emerged as the clear winners.

¤ British Rose To Power In India

Thereafter, the British steadily rose to power in India, at least till the Uprising of 1857.

The Uprising was a culmination of a number of factors. People were growing increasingly resentful of Britain’s political and cultural motives in India. But the mandatory use of Enfield Rifles, and cartridges greased with animal tallow – pig or cow – that were to be readied by mouth by practising Hindus and Muslims in the Sepoy Army of Indian troops, precipitated the event.

There is enough evidence to support the fact that the Uprising had been planned for months before the actual outbreak. However, revolutionaries failed to spread the word about it beyond Central India and Delhi, and the Uprising did not quite unfold as planned. Had it gone according to schedule, the Uprising would have broken out in many areas simultaneously and been difficult for the British to contain. However, as things turned out, trouble erupted sporadically in various places in May 1857 and there was little, if any, coordination between the outbreaks. For the British, quelling such a rebellion was hardly intimidating.

¤ The Revolt of 1857

Stories about the British and Indian confrontation in Delhi in 1857 abound. Tales of valour and bravery about both sides alternate with accounts of unimaginable horror and destruction.

The poet-Mughal in Delhi, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Tatia Tope of Gwalior (Gwalior itself did not rebel, Tope was merely a general), the Rani of Jhansi too joined in the rebellion as they had their own interests to protect. None of them would actually have rebelled had the British not rethought the `compensation’ that these rulers were being paid in exchange for a share in the governance.

The people of Delhi, Lucknow, Gwalior and the rest of India, however, had nothing to gain, at least not personally. Their war was not for a private kingdom; they were fighting for freedom.

Scholars and historians who have revisited the event have tried to define the Uprising in terms that were at times limiting or expansive – a simple Mutiny, India’s first National War of Independence, a Princely plot, to name few. In any case, it would be difficult to package the event in a single neat definition.

Following the Uprising, the British Crown in Parliament formally took over the responsibility of ruling India from the British East India Company.

What was happening in the Indian society all this while was difficult to overlook. A cultural revolution had been taking place even before the Uprising of 1857. Sati was banned, the Arya Samaj was a new religious alternative, education for women was encouraged and a whole new breed of intellectuals – mostly from Bengal – were making their presence felt. This new breed of Indians was a power to reckon with.

After the Uprising, India was poised at the dawn of a new era of political awareness.

¤ Indian National Congress Came Into Being

In December 1885, despite the Governor General of India, Lord Dufferin’s reluctance to endorse the idea, Allan Octavian Hume formed the Indian National Union (which would soon be renamed Indian National Congress), alongwith seventy-two learned Indian delegates hailing from different parts of the country. The Indian National Congress’ first meeting took place in Bombay in 1885, and was presided over by W C Bonnerjee.

In its early phase, referred to as the phase of the Moderates (1885-1905), the Congress pledged loyalty to the British. The moderates were a class of elite erudite men who were into philosophy and intellectual discussions; the much more popular peoples’ leaders were to follow. One of the most prominent leaders, Dadabhai Naoroji, wrote extensively to highlight the drain of wealth from India to Britain.

The Congress was soon to enter a turbulent phase, and in 1907, during the session at Surat, there was an open split in the party.  The moderates led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Pherozeshah Mehta and those that the British qualified as extremists headed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, parted ways. The Congress would regain its vitality only years later (1919-1934) under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

In 1905, Lord Curzon’s brainchild, the partition of Bengal was implemented. The decision evoked sharp reactions from all quarters of India. The day on which the partition came into effect was observed as a day of mourning and fasting throughout Bengal. Rabindranath Tagore, the famous Nobel-laureate and writer, passionately spoke out against it. This was the time when the Swadeshi movement was first launched; Indians participated in auto-da-fés of foreign goods and turned to indigenously manufactured articles. Lots of young leaders from Bengal took up the task of educating people. On August 15, 1906, a National Council of Education was set up under the educationist Aurobindo Ghose.

The government came down heavily on the agitators, disrupting meetings, insulting leaders and beating up peaceful protestors. In 1907, Lala Lajpat Rai and Sardar Ajit Singh were deported from the Punjab. In 1908, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was arrested and sentenced to six years of prison. Aurobindo Ghose was arrested, prosecuted and although acquitted, he chose to retire to Pondicherry.

The agitation against the partition of Bengal (although the partition was revoked in 1911) ushered in the age of Indian nationalism. It was a question of time before this nationalistic fervour settled down to the more concrete issue of how India was to cast aside the British yoke.

¤ Indian National Movement Continues

While Great Britain was entangled in World War I, India’s national movement, despite being at a nascent stage, continued to throw up surprises. In December 1915, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the first nationalist leader with a deep understanding of India’s grassroots, and a considerable following, voiced the idea of Home Rule (`swadeshi’, was a word the British were wary of). It was for the first time that someone had alluded to Home Rule being the goal of the Indian National Movement. On April 28, 1916, the Home Rule League was founded, with its headquarters in Poona (Pune). Tilak went on a whirlwind tour of the country, appealing to everybody to unite under the banner of Home Rule League. Annie Besant who subscribed to the cause herself assisted him in this task.

The implications of the Home Rule movement were clear to all now. The independence of India was the goal of the Indian national movement. But while the idea of independence was swiftly gaining ground, for the most part, the bougeoisie was still unsure about whether it needed to jump into the fray or hold itself at bay. Meanwhile the Crown rule decided to tighten the clamps. Laws were formulated to prevent agitations, undesirable elements were banned from entering India, propaganda came under government scrutiny – the British had reason to be nervous.

¤ Gandhiji

and then, as Jawaharlal Nehru would later say, Gandhi came.

He was not anyone’s idea of a charismatic leader. Just a short, thin, shrivelled man, with what Sarojini Naidu called `Mickey Mouse ears’ and a twinkle in his eyes. He talked of ahimsa, or non-violence and ahimsa would finally disarm the British.

When Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi finally returned to India from South Africa at the age of 46, his arrival was preceded by his formidable reputation as a political leader. Moments after having docked at Bombay, he was asked to lead the National Movement.

Gandhi, however, declined, opting to get to know India thoroughly. The first causes he chose to associate with were minor local affairs, and the nationalist leaders of the time did not know what to make of this almost too-mild, too-moral and too-impractical maverick.

During 1917-18, with revolutionary conspiracies being on the rise within the country, the British grew progressively uneasy. To counter these, Justice S A T  Rowlatt proposed the Rowlatt Acts. Among other things, this act empowered the government with special wartime controls that included the right to try political cases without a jury, and gave the provincial governments along with the centre, the power to imprison without trial. Gandhi, in his typical style, said that the repressive Rowlatt Acts raised issues of trust and self-respect, and hence needed be met with a moral response in the form of a hartal, or a protest that entailed striking work on April 8, 1919.

¤ The Massacre At Jallianwala Bagh

The flashpoint came in Punjab. On April 12, 1919, General R E H  Dyer who had taken over the troops in Punjab the day before, prohibited all meetings and gatherings. So when a group of unarmed people congregated at the Jallianwala Bagh, a walled park with only a single narrow entrance, on April 13, 1919 to celebrate the Sikh festival of Baisakhi. What followed was to blight the pages of Indian History and its peoples’ minds for a very long time to come. A peaceful congregation had been transformed into an unmitigated blood bath.

Later, during the court martial, General Dyer coldly observed that he had fired only 1600 rounds of ammunition on the crowd as that was all he had. He added that he would have fired more had he so deemed fit.

The brutality of the Jallianwallah Bagh massacre shocked the country. It also shook the moderates out of their stupour and brought Gandhi out in the open.

¤ Congress Launched Non-Cooperation Movement

In 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the Indian National Congress launched the first movement of protest – the Non-Cooperation Movement. It involved surrendering all titles, honorary offices and nominated posts in local bodies. Government functions and darbars were to be boycotted. Parents were requested to withdraw their children from government schools and colleges. Indians stayed way from the British courts and army, and were to stand for elections to government and legislative bodies. Ahimsa or non-violence was to be observed strictly.

The magnitude of the Non Cooperation Movement amazed every political leader in India. Gandhi’s approach was not so meek after all. The idea appealed immensely to popular imagination and suddenly, in a single sweep, the Non-Cooperation Movement had touched every man on the street. People came out in droves to support Gandhi and his movement.

The government machinery did not actually break down, but came under visible strain. Unfortunately, at a time when the movement was showing signs of success, in Chauri Chaura, a mob of 3000 people killed 25 policemen and one officer. Similar incidents had taken place earlier on November 17, 1921, in Bombay and on January 13, 1922, in Madras. On February 7, Gandhi suspended the movement. He was arrested on March 13, 1922. Suddenly, the future of swaraj, or self-rule within a year seemed uncertain.

Gandhi came under fire from several quarters for disassociating himself from the Non-Cooperation Movement. The man of the masses took the masses along when he made his exit. and this was not to be the only time when differences of opinion cropped up in the Congress about Gandhi’s actions. and each time, in the end, people invariably gave in to the Mahatma. Gandhi had won over the heart of an entire nation.

In 1927 the British government set up a committee headed by Sir John Simon to review the state of affairs in India. However, the committee that came to be known as the Simon Commission did not include even a single Indian. The Congress took umbrage to the omission.

At this time, young radicals like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose were insisting on making total independence the goal of the Congress. At midnight, on December 31, 1929, Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled the Tricolor on the banks of the river Ravi in Punjab and the Congress called for purna swaraj, or complete Independence. January 26, 1930, was declared as Independence Day. From February 14 to 16, 1930, the Congress Working Committee met at Gandhi’s famous ashram in Sabarmati and requested him to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement ‘at a time and place of his choice.’

On February 27, the plan for the agitation was made public. The entire nation was in ferment. Everyone, including the British, was curious to see what the Mahatma would do next.

On March 12, 1930, accompanied by 78 colleagues of the Sabarmati Ashram, Mahatma Gandhi embarked on a 60-mile march to the sea coast of Dandi. He intended to defy the new salt taxes that the government had levied and that would directly impact each and every peasant. To begin with, the government thought it better to ignore the event. However, soon the entire country was abuzz with hartals, protests, agitations, processions. The rising tide of discontent had to be checked. Gandhi was arrested on May 5, 1930. Abbas Tyabji took the relay to lead the movement. When Tyabji was arrested, Sarojini Naidu, the nightingale of India, replaced him.

All over India, the mood was upbeat, the atmosphere tense and the people on the streets. Louis Fischer wrote about the Civil Disobedience: “The British beat the Indians with batons and rifle butts. The Indians neither cringed nor complained nor retreated. That made England powerless and India invincible.”

¤ First Round Table Conference

When the first Round Table Conference was held in London from November 12, 1930 to January 19, 1931, not a single member of the Congress attended it. The British now appealed to the Congress to work with them. Lord Irwin also declared that Mahatma Gandhi and the other members of the Congress Working Committee would soon be freed to consider the matter ‘freely and fearlessly.’

The Mahatma and Lord Irwin finally met. The result was the Gandhi-Irwin pact. Amongst other things, the Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn under the pact, and a second Round Table Conference with Congress participation was agreed upon. This peace did not last long. Gandhi attended the Second Round Table conference in London in 1931 as the sole representative of the Congress. He demanded control of foreign affairs and defence, and the matter of minorities, with little help from Muhammad Ali Jinnah, His Highness the Aga Khan and Dr Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, ended in a complete deadlock. Gandhi returned to India on December 28, 1931 empty-handed.

By May 1934, the Civil Disobedience Movement had been completely withdrawn.

During World War II, the Congress decided that India should co-operate with Britain on the understanding that complete independence would be granted to India after that. The British, however were unwilling to discuss the issue of independence during wartime. This had the members of the Congress wondering about the intentions of the government. Meanwhile, the divide between Jinnah’s Muslim League and the Congress’ aims and demands had grown sharper. In early 1940, Jinnah declared Pakistan as the goal of the League.

After the fall of France in 1940, Gandhi declared, “We do not seek independence out of Britain’s ruin.” The British reply to this was an offer to discuss an Indian constituent assembly, as well as Dominion status `after the war’. The offer was spurned. This resulted in yet status would be another deadlock not to be resolved till 1947.

¤ The Launching of Quit India movement

Gandhi with his usual innovative skill now had the country and Congress rallying behind him. The moment had arrived to launch the Quit India movement. The unnerving part was that the launch of another Civil Disobedience Movement could coincide with the Japanese advances from the far-east towards India. “After all,” Gandhi said, “this is open rebellion.” The country was willing to court risks for the freedom that was to be won.

The movement was launched on August 8, 1942 in Bombay. Gandhi declared: “I want freedom immediately, this very night, before dawn, if it can be had. You may take it from me that I am not going to strike a bargain with the Viceroy for ministers and the like… Here is the mantra, a short one, that I give you… Do or die. We shall either free India or die in the attempt.”

From 1942 onwards it was quite clear that the countdown to an independent India had begun.

¤ Arrival of Lord Mountbatten

In 1946, Lord Mountbatten arrived in Delhi amid a buzz of political activity. After World War II, the British seemed keen to wash their hands off India. For their part, the Indians were not loathe to such an idea.

However, there were too many emotional ties – the British and the Indians went too far back together for the British to just pack up and leave. Mountbatten was entrusted with the responsibility of transferring power to the Indians, safeguarding British interests and prestige for future interaction with independent India and Pakistan. and in the bargain, if Partition was inevitable, the nations would have to live with the realisation and the consequences

¤ Partition of India

It was one of the worst movements of people in recent history after that of the Jews in the World War II. A nation was dismembered. On August 15, 1947 – India kept her ‘tryst with destiny’. Midnight bore her the precious gift of freedom. Following an announcement on August 17, 1947 Pakistan became the other independent state.

Gandhi, the father of the nation, did not join in the celebrations that followed. He was elsewhere working in riot torn areas, praying for peace. For him independence was tinged with sadness and disappointment. He was ready to withdraw from active politics.

Accusations of siding with the Muslims and giving Pakistan away too easily, dogged Gandhi since the day the state of Pakistan was declared. On January 30, 1948, a Hindu fundamentalist called Nathu Ram Godse shot the Mahatma. India lost the man who, alongwith so many others, had taught it to dream of independence, and to throw a bridge between that dream and reality. and on August 15, 1947, Indians had walked across that bridge.

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Facets of the Nation

Posted by Admin on August 15, 2010

Facets of the Nation

  • The National Song of India, Vande Mataram, was composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, and was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung, was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
    Download National Song of India (1.06 MB, 1:09 Sec.).
  • A very significant facet of the nationalism of India is the cornucopia of national symbols, which present a vivid canvas of the national elements of India.
    Know more about these national symbols.
  • The Indian independence was certainly not attained on a silver platter by its people, but was a tale of a long and arduous struggle that bore the fruit of freedom for the Country.
    Historical background of the Indian freedom struggle.

Culture & Heritage: The ancient land of India portrays a landscape of vibrant cultural heritage and spiritual mysticism, which speaks volumes for its vast display of colourful traditions and rich heritage. Know more about the culture & heritage of India.

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Interesting Facts about India

Posted by Admin on August 15, 2010

Interesting Facts about India

  • India never invaded any country in her last 100000 years of history.
  • When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)
  • The name ‘India’ is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu.
  • The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name ‘Hindustan’ combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.
  • Chess was invented in India.
  • Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.
  • The ‘Place Value System’ and the ‘Decimal System’ were developed in India in 100 B.C.
  • The World’s First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.
  • India is the largest democracy in the world, the 6th largest Country in the world, and one of the most ancient civilizations.
  • The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called ‘Mokshapat’. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The game was played with cowrie shells and dices. In time, the game underwent several modifications, but its meaning remained the same, i.e. good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births.
  • The world’s highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. Built in 1893 after leveling a hilltop, this cricket pitch is 2444 meters above sea level.
  • India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world.
  • The largest employer in the world is the Indian Railways, employing over a million people.
  • The world’s first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.
  • Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.
  • India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India’s wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake.
  • The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘NAVGATIH’. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Nou’.
  • Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.
  • The value of “pi” was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians.
  • Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India.Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).
  • Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world
    (Source: Gemological Institute of America).
  • The Baily Bridge is the highest bridge in the world. It is located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains. It was built by the Indian Army in August 1982.
  • Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries.
  • Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism,physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.
  • India exports software to 90 countries.
  • The four religions born in India – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world’s population.
  • Jainism and Buddhism were founded in India in 600 B.C. and 500 B.C. respectively.
  • Islam is India’s and the world’s second largest religion.
  • There are 300,000 active mosques in India, more than in any other country, including the Muslim world.
  • The oldest European church and synagogue in India are in the city of Cochin. They were built in 1503 and 1568 respectively.
  • Jews and Christians have lived continuously in India since 200 B.C. and 52 A.D. respectively
  • The largest religious building in the world is Angkor Wat, a Hindu Temple in Cambodia built at the end of the 11th century.
  • The Vishnu Temple in the city of Tirupathi built in the 10th century, is the world’s largest religious pilgrimage destination. Larger than either Rome or Mecca, an average of 30,000 visitors donate $6 million (US) to the temple everyday.
  • Sikhism originated in the Holy city of Amritsar in Punjab. Famous for housing the Golden Temple, the city was founded in 1577.
  • Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called “the Ancient City” when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.
  • India provides safety for more than 300,000 refugees originally from Sri Lanka, Tibet, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who escaped to flee religious and political persecution.
  • His Holiness, the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists, runs his government in exile from Dharmashala in northern India.
  • Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.
  • Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.

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Indian Independence Day – 15th August

Posted by Admin on August 15, 2010

India’s Independence Day is celebrated on 15 August 1947, India attained freedom from the British Rule. So every year, August 15 is celebrated as the Independence Day in India. Independence Day is a celebration of our culmination of long struggle for freedom. It is celebrated all over the country through flag-hoisting ceremony. The day is a national holiday in India. This national festival is celebrated with great enthusiasm all over the country. It was this day when India’s tricolor flag was unfolded by Pandit Nehru on the barricades of the Red Fort at Delhi. Each and every patriotic soul watched with excitement and paid tribute to thousands of martyrs who sacrificed their lives for India’s freedom.

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