Revolutionizing Awareness

helping humanity, make choices, more so through awareness, than ignorance

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Magnificent Women of India

Posted by Admin on February 26, 2012

http://in.lifestyle.yahoo.com/photos/magnificent-women-of-india-slideshow/;_ylt=Ai0GWSZgbSopIR0Wi_OkphNgmeh_;_ylu=X3oDMTM3anZmdnFiBG1pdAMEcGtnAzkxMGU2OGJlLTAzNTUtMzMyZS05MjRhLTg1MWU0OThiNTQzNARwb3MDNARzZWMDZW5kX3NzBHZlcgM4NjQzMjJkMi01ZWQ0LTExZTEtYTlmNy1hMWE4Njc4NDMzODc-;_ylv=3

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Note from Admin:- To the greatest nation on Earth and Mankind’s greatest compromise to the Divine,…For the Land of My Birth,My Love,My Glory,My Sacrifice and My Passing, Ever Unto Thee…I shall never forget you nor let go, for it is in you that I am forever nested beyond the confines of the Cosmos and Origin…

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When France-born photographer CLAUDE RENAULT came to India, he fell in love with the land he now calls “a special place” and his “second country.” His observant eye finds inspiration in commonplace sights that most people let pass without a second glance. His lens seeks out hidden character in the map of human faces, in their laugh lines, dark eyes and unpretentious smiles. A passionate traveler, Renault’s journey is fueled by the mantra: “I won’t travel just for a nice landscape or an historical monument, but for what makes a country: the people.” Enjoy his candid, fascinating and inspiring photos. You will never look at India the same way again. And if you are a foreigner wandering in India with a camera, we invite you to share your impressions of India.

Danuko Lakshmi, a Lambadi woman in Andhra Pradesh.

Photo by Claude Renault

Widows in Vrindavan, Uttar Pradesh, renowned in mythology as Krishna‘s playground.

Photo by Claude Renault

Saying hello to God in Sri Sailam, Andhra Pradesh.

Photo by Claude Renault

Durgi is a shepherd I met in Hampi, Karnataka.

Photo by Claude Renault

Papu during the camel fair in Pushkar, Rajasthan, in 2001.

Photo by Claude Renault

Fatima Tabasu, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh in the bus going to Golconda.

Photo by Claude Renault

This Rajasthani pilgrim was sitting inside a small temple next to her husband in Ram Jhula, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand.

Photo by Claude Renault

This woman is the owner of a small ‘Chai’ place in Ram Jhula, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand.

Photo by Claude Renault

A Muslim girl in Gulbarga, Karnataka.

Photo by Claude Renault

A lovely woman I met walking in the streets of Jodhpur, Rajasthan.

Photo by Claude Renault

A Lambadi woman waiting for the bus in Hyderabad.

Photo by Claude Renault

Ma Ganga in Hampi, Karnataka.

Photo by Claude Renault

Danuko, Sri Sailam, Andhra Pradesh.

Photo by Claude Renault

Papu in Pushkar, Rajasthan. I met her for the first time in 2001. Now she owns a little shop near the Ghats.

Photo by Claude Renault

Claude Renault at work

France-born photographer Claude Renault in Varanasi.

View more of his work on his website.

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Chapter 6, ET Human Mega-popupation (Draft)

Posted by Admin on December 24, 2011

Note: For those that are republishing this material I have yet to get permission to publish some of these works by others. Please remember this is only a rough draft and subject to much further editing and correcting. Also blogger messes up the format when I cut and paste.

Exopolitics Book: Chapter One
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/10/exopolitics-book-chapter-1-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter Two
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/10/exopolitics-book-chapter-2-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter 3
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/10/exopolitics-book-chapter-3-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter 4
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/10/exopolitics-book-chapter-four-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter 5
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/11/chapter-five-grays-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter 6
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/12/chapter-six-et-human-mega-popupation.html

CHAPTER SIX (Draft)
The Extraterrestrial Human Mega-population
By Ed Komarek

I think I should warn the reader if they have not already learned the lesson the hard way that the chances are very high that when they begin investigating extraterrestrial human contact cases they will be duped and defrauded by a swarm of false contactees and whistleblowers and their duped promoters. It’s become the rage in UFO/ET circles on the Internet since its creation, to create false narratives of contact for a number of reasons or a combination thereof.

Some people just want attention and feel important, some are mentally ill, others want to sell their false narratives built upon information they have acquired in the UFO/ET community as a book or movie script, others have psychological Messiah Complexes and advertise for cult followers, some are cult followers looking for a Messiah, some are even skeptics feeling superior and important out to hoax the believers for being so gullible. Seems like just about every major star or constellation has some false contactee claiming to be in contact with celestial beings originating from this or that star or constellation.

From what I have been able to tell with over 40 years of study is that extraterrestrial humans if they are ethically advanced communicate with people who are working very hard to move human evolution forward, or if less ethically advanced with people that they are monitoring, studying or experimenting upon. In both cases these contactees are very reluctant to become public, either because it will affect their credibility in everyday life, or because they fear the secret government involved in these matters.

If anybody with an open mind has any doubt about there being a vast cosmic mega-population of humans and humanoids with many species coming to earth and interacting with us and our environs, they have to go no further than the compilations of humanoid contact cases. Albert Rosales alone has compiled over 4000 humanoid cases since the 1940s and 291 humanoid cases for 1954 alone. Good grief!!!! Here are the first 20 cases out of the 291 for 1954 just to give the reader an idea of the scope of the evidence if they are unable to access this link. http://www.ufoinfo.com/humanoid/humanoid1954.shtml

Albert Rosales states: “1954 Humanoid Reports. The focus is France. The unprecedented and until possibly 1973, unduplicated wave of humanoid reports took place throughout France and some parts of Italy. Other reports came in from England, US, Germany, Canada & other European countries but at a much lesser extent. Towards the end of the year the focus seemed to shift to Venezuela & Brazil. Whatever the case, it was indeed a memorable year. Following is a list of known Humanoid reports for the year 1954.

One: Location. Near Cincinnati Ohio Date: 1954 Time: unknown – A reported landing of a silvery disc from which a tall human like occupant resembling the “Adamski” type beings, with long blond hair and wearing a sky blue coverall emerged. He reportedly walked to a nearby stream and obtained some water; he then went back into the object and took off. No other information. HC addition # 1008 Source: Michael D Swords, IUR Vol. 18 # 5, quoting Hunt-Williamson Files Type: B

Two: Location. Tenterden Kent England Date: 1954 Time: unknown – The witness was alone in her house when she encountered, standing in the passage on the landing in front of her, a man over six-foot tall. He wore a metallic blue siren type suit that was glimmering. She stood looking at the entity and he looked at her without a word being spoken. The entity had a very high forehead, a slit for a mouth, large eyes, and high cheekbones. He also had a large pointed chin and his eyes were deep blue in colour. He wore a very tight fitting helmet made out of a translucent material; his skin appeared to be pink. After a brief moment he suddenly vanished in plain sight. HC addition # 412 Source: Norman Oliver, UFO Magazine Vol. 11 # 5. Type: E

Three: Location. Nord (Northern) France (exact location not given) Date: 1954 Time: unknown – An anonymous witness reported seeing a disc-shaped object land and a small man come out of it. He was entirely covered in a dark tight-fitting diving suit, which did not allow distinguishing none of his features. The little man then communicated in French with the witness saying the following absurd sentences: “Intelligence is prohibited to the constipated and cancer comes from a tooth ache” The little man then walked back into the disc, which then took off and disappeared. HC addendum Source: Eric Zurcher quoting Aime Michel Type: B

Four: Location. Near Minyushino, Yaroslavl region, Russia Date: 1954 Time: unknown – A local resident reported seeing a flying object shaped like a “box or basket” flying towards the village of Staroye Merzleyevo. The object flew at a low altitude and emitted a muffled humming sound. The object then touched and tree and landed and two strange “men” of unusual appearance then exited the object. Both men seemed occupied in performing several tasks around the environs. After a few moments the two strangers returned to the object which then lifted up again and flew away. Local villagers, though simple people, noticed that the strange device was neither an airplane or a helicopter or an air balloon with basket, it was something they had heard or seen before. HC addendum Source: Vadim A. Chernobrov “Encyclopaedia of UFO visits” Moscow 2008 quoting Valeriy Kukushkin Type: B

Five: Location. Near Rushden England Date: 1954 Time: afternoon – An eight-year old boy was digging in his garden when he saw a strange oval shaped “cloud” and heard a voice giving him instructions. Apparently he has been involved in other encounters. No other information. HC addition # 3884 Source: Northamptonshire UFO Research Club Type: F

Six: Location. Queensland Australia, exact location not given Date: 1954 Time: afternoon – In an isolated farm area a man named Harry saw a being step out from behind a tree. The being wore a maroon tight fitting body suit with a broad belt. The entity was described as tall with long golden hair. No other information. HC addition # 2671 Source: Keith Basterfield Type: E

Seven: Location. South Pasadena California Date: 1954 Time: afternoon – The witness was out cutting wood in his yard when he saw a disc shaped object descend and hover about 20 feet from the ground. Three man-like figures descended to the ground by means of a ladder. The men approached the witness and attempted to communicate by using sign language. The witness reported that the three men apparently did not have any mouths, or were wearing some type of half faceplate or mask. HC addition # 1861 Source: George Hunt Williamson, Other Tongues Other Flesh Type: B

Eight: Location. Pantelleria, Sicily, Italy Date: 1954 Time: afternoon – A 14-year old boy, Giuseppe Gabriele was exploring the island on his motor scooter and was rounding a bend on the path when he saw four small human-like figures standing next to a landed disc-shaped craft, afraid, he rode away from the area and did not investigate. HC addendum Source: Antonio Blanco “Catalogo degli avvistamenti della Regione Sicilia” Type: C

Nine: Location. Bankstown New South Wales Australia Date: 1954 Time: just after dark – Two persons working late at the local airport observed what resembled a disc shaped object hovering above the control tower. Several lighted portholes could be seen and dark figures could be seen moving inside. The object changed colours then shot up into the air at great speed. HC addition # 1302 Source: Keith Basterfield Type: A

Ten: Location. Chelsea England Date: 1954 Time: evening – Air Marshal Sir Peter Horsley reported that a certain General Martin invited him to the apartment of a Mrs Markham. There he met an apparent extraterrestrial of humanoid appearance, pale, with penetrating eyes and not totally human, which called himself “Mr. Janus.” Fixing the Marshal with a steely gaze, the “alien” talked for hours about traveling in space and time. On a return visit, Horsley found the apartment empty. HC addition # 3023
Source: UFO-Mind Type: E

Eleven: Location. Near Madras, India Date: 1954 Time: evening – In a small village a disc-shaped object was seen landing on a field. Several human-like occupants exited the object and they approached a local woman and communicated with her and also walked to nearby several homes and communicated with its occupants. No other information. HC addendum Source: Denys Breysse Project Becassine Type: E

Twelve: Location. Wright City, Missouri Date: 1954 Time: evening – The witnesses were driving home on a gravel road heading east when one of them looked out the window and noticed something flying over them and observing them. It was just high enough that the driver could not see it. The witness could see human-like persons walking around inside the object which was lit up. They wore some type of uniform like clothing. There was no sound or exterior lights and the object was going roughly the same speed of that of the car. The car drove for about a mile or two and then turned left into an area that had a lot of trees and lost sight of the object. HC addendum Source: http://www.uforc.com/ufo_reports/ Type: A

Thirteen: Location. Near Terra Alta West Virginia Date: 1954 Time: night – The young witness was coming back from a visit to the outhouse when the family dog began whining and looking up to a nearby hill. The witness looked up and saw a large flat object with three yellow-lighted windows, hovering low above the hill. The object was emitting a humming noise. Suddenly a human face appeared on one of the windows and apparently looked at the witness. The object then moved slowly away and disappeared over the hill. HC addition # 1953 Source: Bob Teets, West Virginia UFOs, Close Encounters in the Mountain State Type: A

Fourteen: Location. Near Lancaster New York Date: 1954 Time: night – A couple living in a farm had been seeing mysterious manoeuvring lights over the area for several nights in a row, then one night as they were watching television in their living room a foggy white beam of light shot through one of the windows. They then noticed, looking in the window the face of a man who appeared to be of a dark complexion. He was estimated to have been only about four-foot tall, judging by the height of the window. The beam of light seemed to emanate from the entity’s face. The witnesses approached the window several times but each time they did the face would disappear. HC addition # 1864 Source: George Hunt Williamson, Other Tongues Other Flesh Type: E

Sixteen: Location. Saratov region, Russia Date: 1954 Time: unknown – Several (at least 2) UFOs were detected visually and on radars by the Soviet military. Objects flew over the secret missile and radar sites located in Saratov and Volgograd regions near the river Volga and towards the launch missile positions of “Kapustin Yar” state central test range # 4, one of the first Soviet missile test ranges.

According to military opinion “the flight appeared to be for reconnaissance purposes”. Three or four Mig-15 aircraft were immediately scrambled from Volsk airbase NE of Saratov with orders to force the UFOs to land. After several aggressive attempts to compel the UFOs to land, the Migs opened fire. Immediately after that the radio communication with the all the Migs was interrupted and the Migs did not return to their base. A search and rescue operation brought no results—no wreckage was found. The pilots were reported missing. Apparently the Migs were either totally destroyed or abducted by the UFOs. A state commission was created to investigate the case. A member of the commission, a Mr. Popov emphasized the similarity between the incident near Moscow in 1938 and this new case.

A classified report was submitted to the special military Soviet archive on UFOs which was created in 1955 almost a year after the incident. The Soviet Ministry of Defence kept a special archive on UFOs inside an underground bunker in a military garrison named Beryezovka-2 on Krasnyi Kut range in the Saratov region. The archive existed from 1955 to 1991. The archive was reportedly destroyed by orders from Moscow in 1991. HC addendum Source: Egveniy Valmer, retired officer in “Fourth Dimension and NLO” # 5 1999 and Victor A. Zdorov Type: G?

Sixteen: Location. Osceola, Iowa Date: 1954 Time: 2330 – Michael Kelly, a young pre-school child at the time remembered finding himself one late evening surrounded by “boy-scouts” escorting him to a field near his home. They were about his size in height and were wearing some kind of uniform. The witness still thinking they were “scouts” asked the little men why were they not wearing hats or caps and one of them responded that they didn’t wear hats. Once in the field he found himself in a circle of beaming lights that appeared solid in nature. He looked directly above him and saw a large disc-shaped object hovering silently overhead. The object had colourful lights on its outer rim. He asked the “scouts” what the object was and they told him it was a “helicopter”. He answered that it didn’t look like a helicopter and after that his mind went blank. The witness has been possibly involved in other strange events.
HC addendum Source: http://www.etcontact.net/newsite Type: C or G?

Seventeen: Location. Near March Field California Date: early 1954 Time: unknown – Several witnesses were passing by the airfield in a vehicle when they observed a shiny disc shaped craft resting on the ground. In order to get a closer look they exited their vehicle and approached the object. The craft was smooth and silvery and there appeared to be no one around the object. The witnesses then decided to get even closer to the object when suddenly a man appeared and stepped in front of them. He raised his arm and threw what appeared to be a fireball at them. The fireball passed by them and struck their vehicle. The witnesses immediately fled the area, driving to the nearest police station. The being was described as tall, man like and wearing some sort of half mask on his face, apparently metallic. The fireball reportedly dented the side of the vehicle and burned the paint. HC addition # 1860 Source: George Hunt Williamson, Other Tongues Other Flesh Type: C

Eighteen: Location. Near Acapulco Mexico Date: January 1954 Time: 0200A – While driving the winding roads that separate Mexico City from Acapulco, Armando Zurbaran only concern was arriving at the Pacific port city before sunrise, in order to meet a business partner. At some point during the drive, he was overcome by an almost hypnotic state of lethargy, which caused him to pull over. Not far ahead on the road, he was able to see a number of men clad in overalls with wide belts gathered around a strange, brilliantly lit object.

Before he realized, and having no idea how it happened, he was walking toward the object, escorted by the longhaired men. A slight buzzing sound filled his ears as he entered the saucer. Zurbaran was going down in history as his country’s first Contactee (how about Salvador Villanueva in 1953?) and this was his first question to the ship’s captain, “Why had he been chose for this honour?” “You are neither the first nor last earthman to be chosen for testing” his host replied. “Our task, slow though it may seem, is designed to persuade.

We choose the likeliest, most malleable persons for contact, so that they might better transmit our messages.” Zurbaran was then treated to a review of the smallest details of his life on a screen within the vehicle’s wall and a tour of the ship’s interior, guided by one of the fair, longhaired crewmen (reminiscent of Adamski’s visitors) who answered each of the puzzled human’s questions in detail. The space travellers, he learned, employed a gravity repulsion system to cover the distance between their home world and Earth, scanning the space ahead of them with a radar-like device to dispel any objects that may lie in their path.

Unlike other contactee stories of the time, Zurbaran’s visitors did not claim to originate from any planet in the Solar System, nor did they mention their planet of origin by name. The craft, he learned, had taken off while he was unaware and was now in space. Zurbaran peeked out a porthole, hoping for a glimpse of the world seen from above, but could only see a greyish mist until at a distance of 40,000 km, the ship’s captain pointed out the planet to him through another porthole. Excited by the vista, the human asked the captain if he could perhaps be taken to visit their world, but his request was turned down.

He was told that perhaps someday such an invitation would be tendered, at the right moment. Zurbaran was able to sleep a normal sleep and eat with the UFO’s crew. His description of taking a shower in space is particularly memorable, “I shall never be able to forget it. That bathroom was a new and unimaginable experience for me. Standing upright, facing an angle of the wall filled with tiny holes, I was covered in warm air, and as it grew stronger, it became transformed into damp air, impregnating my skin like a warm, wet breeze. When I was completely drenched, I was offered a sort of liquid soap, which I rubbed all over myself, from head to toe.

Standing once more before the warm air sprinklers, I felt the soap begin to evaporate and my skin become completely clean. The air then ceased to be damp, turning dry and warm instead of becoming colder until agreeably cool.” Breakfast in orbit around the planet consisted of fruit juices tasting imperceptibly of mangoes or other tropical fruits. The ship’s captain advised him that to his people, milk was a principal source of nourishment, but that they did not get it from cows but from a mixture of terrestrial and marine plant life.

Zurbaran ate grilled meat, butter and cheese in the vehicle’s mess-room. He was told that the provisions were transported aboard the craft via telepathy (?). Unknown to Zurbaran, thousands of miles away, in the Pyrenees between Spain and France, Jaime Bordas a resident of the village of Castell, was engaged in a strange experience with a six-foot tall, overall wearing humanoid with long blond hair. The otherworldly being would only drink milk as its sole nourishment. (1951).

After the meal, the captain proceeded to regale Zurbaran with his world’s philosophy, religion and history, children and the elderly received special consideration, and there was equality between the occupations. The average life span was 250 years, and collaboration had replaced competition in the area of commerce a utopia made possible by a being they termed, “The Master” or “Beloved Number Nine” who was at the heart of their religion, and who had ruled them for a span of three thousand earth years.

The spaceship returned Zurbaran to his car by the roadside. Confused but excited by his experience, he continued the balance of his drive to Acapulco, learning upon his arrival that it had only taken him an hour and a half to complete a six-hour journey. He did not see the space-people who had befriended him and offered him hospitality again for 15 years, until one night in January 1969 near the outskirts of Mexico City; he gave a ride to a young hitchhiker who turned out to be one the crewmen aboard the UFO that night 15 years in the past. HC addition # 1715 Source: Scott Corrales, Samizdat 1993 Year One
Type: G

Nineteen: Location. Los Toldos, Salta, Argentina Date: January 1954 Time: late night – 25-year old Martin Antiman (now a local Indian “Cacique” ‘chieftain’) was in his room alone when he suddenly heard a very high pitched sound. At the same time a type of “magnetic” force somehow introduced him into a type cabin or “elevator” which had appeared in the room. Immediately after the cabin or elevator departed at fantastic speed and everything became very silent around him. The door suddenly opened and he stepped out finding himself in a sort of mountainous valley very desolate in appearance. He walked about 100 meters and saw several men carrying large bags on their shoulders.

He yelled and whistled at the men in order to communicate with them, but these seemed to ignore him. He then heard a voice in his mind that told him that the men did not answered him because “they had no brains” and could not hear the voice of the “creator”. The voice then told him that he must tell all he could about this “vision”. Soon he was introduced inside the cabin or elevator like object. Moments later the door opened and he found himself back in his room. He never spoke to anyone about this incident for at least 20 years. HC addendum Source: http://www.visionovni.com.ar/ Type: G?

Twenty: Location. Ostia, Rome, Italy Date: January 14 1954 Time: 0130am – A young student, Miss E. D. Bonacini, was returning home with her boyfriend when both of them observed a rectangular red light in the sky. Looking at it again quickly, they saw that the light had changed its shape, becoming a kind of “upside down parachute” that was moving toward them. After 90 seconds, it was very close, nearly overhead, hovering at a height comparable with that of a three—or four story building.

The object resembled a half sphere with a small protuberance in its lower section and a very bright area midsection, fading away toward its outer perimeter. The object was “as wide as the road,” i.e. approximately 18 meters in width. The two witnesses watched from a hidden position for about nine minutes. They had the feeling that “somebody” was observing them from inside of the object. Then, they decided to run away. As they did, the object tilted 45 degrees, attaining a vertical orientation and departing quickly in the direction of Fiumicino. The craft slowed down after some kilometres and became lost from view following another 90 seconds or so. As it departed, the object displayed all the colours of the rainbow. HC addendum Source: Maurizio Verga “When Saucers Came to Earth” Type; F??
(End)

Even with just a small random sample of 20 out of 4000 the diversity of humanities interaction with the ET human mega-population is just amazing. I can see I have to take the time to explore these humanoid cases in more detail. Some humanoid cases are very detailed and involve large numbers of people such as the Father Gill case of 1959. http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case67.htm For more detail on this very well documented case go to this link. http://ufos.about.com/od/bestufocasefiles/p/papua.htm

“Date: June 26, 1959 Location: Papua New Guinea – William B. Gill, an Anglican priest with a mission in Bosinai, Papas New Guinea, observed craft-like UFOs — one with Humanoid figures on top — on two consecutive evenings, June 26-27, 1959. About twenty-five natives, including teachers and medical technicians, also observed the phenomena. They “signaled” the humanoids and received an apparent response. This was one of sixty UFO sightings within a few weeks in the New Guinea area.”

Okay, so let’s bear down on some specific credible detailed extraterrestrial cases shall we. Major George Filer Eastern Director of MUFON is one such very credible contactee who only now as an old man told of his contact with human extraterrestrials as a boy in an interview with exopolitics investigator Neil Gould. http://www.educatinghumanity.com/2011/07/ufo-ufo-video-interview-with-major.html

“In a relaxing moment Major Filer discloses for the first time that he and a childhood friend had consenting encounters with human looking ETs and had actually boarded their spacecraft where they were mentored by highly evolved beings with respect to human behavior, nuclear issues and man’s inhumanity towards man. Major Filer admits that these encounters were the impetus behind his tireless work, keeping around 8000 people informed on UFO sightings worldwide through his Fliers Files.”

Georges contact with human extraterrestrials is not unique among investigators and whistleblowers. When I interviewed Clifford Stone in Roswell in the spring of 2011 he told me that one time when some evil men in the military were really coming down hard on him for speaking out a human extraterrestrial met with him. This human extraterrestrial that looks almost exactly like us told Clifford that if he would just stick it out things would get better and they did. So we see that investigator and contactee George Filer is not alone in being mentored by human extraterrestrials.

The MUFON leadership has generally fallen into disrespect and is under siege from public and the rank and file for being little more than a civilian intelligence gathering and perception management asset for the intelligence community. http://reformmufon.org/ One of the exceptions is George Filer who still maintains great respect in the UFO/ET community for his integrity and credibility and ardent pro-disclosure activities that include the weekly publication of his Filers Files. George now has around 10,000 email subscribers and God know how many other people are following his weekly publication on his web page and elsewhere. As far as I am concerned he is MUFON’s best. http://www.nationalufocenter.com/

George would naturally have a great interest in extraterrestrial humans because of his early personal experiences with ETs that look so much like us that they can mingle with us at will. Because these ET humans are so similar in physical form we might assume that they are further examples of a universal collective or mega-population of extraterrestrials that are the most closely related to us.
George researched and wrote the following very interesting article and published it in his Filers Files. http://www.nationalufocenter.com/artman/publish/article_427.php

I think the reader can begin to see from exopolitical writings like this that the exopolitical impacts upon earth human society have been and are profound both culturally and genetically. Earth humanity seems to be entangled, interconnected and embedded in this universal human mega-population or collective in so many ways, regardless if we are aware of it or not.

Are Homo Sapiens Part Alien?
By George Filer

My theory is that alien visitors have helped the development of humans. We humans and the world’s ancient monuments are evidence for this theory. Genetic evidence indicates when humans left Africa all known people on Earth had dark skin, dark eyes and dark hair. Michael Holick, a professor Boston University School of Medicine who indicates when our ancestors left Africa they adjusted their skin tone to allow in more sunlight to get more Vitamin D. Essentially, from two million years ago to less than 100,000 years ago, the ancestors of all people alive were from Africa.

Genetic evidence indicates that light-skin-related mutations arose recently, and spread fast through Europe and Asia. The theory suggests that the reduction of game meat, fish, and some plants from the diet resulted in skin turning clear many thousands of years after settlement in Europe and Asia. This theory is supported by a study into the SLC24A5 gene which found that the allele associated with light skin in Europe may have originated as recently as 6,000–10,000 years ago.

According to scientists a whole series of fortunate mutations explains white skin, blue and green eyes and blonde hair. I have personally seen alien visitors and chased their extraterrestrial craft, so my experiences have provided insight into the likely actual situation.

A team of daring Chinese researchers, digging into the ancient mysteries of the origin of their country, has come to the inescapable conclusion that an interstellar, supreme alien race used much of the northern and western Chinese regions as massive Earth bases. Hundreds of strange pyramids cover parts of China and former Tibet. The data has been kept secret mainly because the alien race was blonde, blue eyed, with white skin. It seems logical that this alien race mated with the humans on Earth at that time. The ancient Chinese writings reveal this theme. Thanks to Gordon James Gianninoto

Nine university scientists gaped upwards at the gigantic, prehistoric pyramid that they determine was built some 10,000 years ago. One such base may be the astonishing pyramid structure that sits near the apex of Mount Baigong in the western province of Qinghai, the Xian yang pyramid. The Chinese pyramids look similar to those in Egypt, Mexico, Peru and on Mars. According to ancient Chinese legend, over one hundred pyramids discovered in China are the legacy of blue eyed blonde aliens.

Scientist Dr. Carl Sagan in his book, “Intelligent Life in the Universe” indicated Earth had likely been visited by extraterrestrials numerous times. He states, “Sumer was an early–perhaps the first -civilization the contemporary sense on the planet Earth. It was founded in the fourth millennium B.C. or earlier. We don’t know where the Sumerians came from. I feel that if the Sumerian civilization is depicted by the descendants of the Sumerians themselves to be of non-human origin, the relevant legends should be examined carefully.” (Page 456)

He goes on to ask, “What might an advanced extraterrestrial civilization want from us?”……He answered his own question by stating, “One of the primary motivations for the exploration of the New World was to convert the inhabitants to Christianity — peacefully if possible — forcefully if necessary. Can we exclude the possibility of an extraterrestrial evangelism?” (Page 463)

Evangelism essentially is a method of bringing a belief system to others,” The Webster’s New Twentieth Century Dictionary states, Evangelize is to preach the gospel, from ‘Greek eu, good and Angelos, a messenger, to instruct in the gospel, to preach the Gospel, also to convert to Christianity. The sacred writings of most religions clearly claim that Angels or extraterrestrials brought their religious beliefs to Earth. Sumerian brick tablets found all over what is today is Iraq; also tell the story of extraterrestrial visitors and how they brought civilization to Sumer. They explain the visitors taught them to build Ziggurats.

Kenneth Larson writes, “The reason why I found it so interesting concerning your reported ancient Chinese pyramid layouts in your website at www.nationalufocenter.com and my strong interest in the ancient Great Pyramid complex near Cairo, Egypt is that there seems to be a basic mathematical-engineering design pattern to the pyramid layouts on the Earth’s surface.” My research books and drawings try to show how the entire Earth exhibits intelligent mathematical design patterns and grid patterns, and the designs relate to key UFO sightings and the primary American West design patterns and layouts, etc.

One key site is the Great Salt Lake, Utah, settled first by Mormons on July 24, 1847, with related key UFO report sites. Joseph Smith said, “The Earth obeys the laws of a celestial kingdom and the glory of God is intelligence. Hence, the celestial kingdom laws seem to be designs and grid patterns as well as scientific and mathematical precepts and designs based on the pi value.” My 38 published books are in the Los Angeles Central Public Library and the Library of Congress, Washington DC. Also, the planet Mars seems to show similar pyramid plan view units. Thanks to Kenneth Larson

Egyptian pyramids were supposedly built by Egyptians in about 3000 BC, as attempt to imitate the stars in the Belt of Orion. They were not exactly at the correct angle to match up with the pyramids unless the location of the stars is traced back to the belt when it was exactly aligned with the pyramids in 10,500 BC. Allegedly no civilized humans were living on the earth at that time.

The Great Pyramid is so huge and so perfect it is unlikely we could construct it today using the same specifications. Each giant Stone ranges from 1 to 20 tons in weight, and the Great Pyramid was built with well over 100,000 stones. But the Egyptians had no machinery, engines, helicopters, or construction equipment, so it is doubtful they could have built without technological help. The stones came from quarries 500 miles away. Just cutting the stones is extremely difficult, getting the to the building site is a monumental task and how did they place 20 ton stones perfectly hundreds of feet high The top of the pyramid is 481 feet high. A ramp would require as much material as the pyramid.

If the pyramid stones were cut it into foot square blocks, they it would reach two thirds of the way around the world. The Great Pyramid lies on 31 degrees north by 31 degrees west. The pyramid is the center of all of the land mass of the whole earth! I examined the interior of the Great Pyramid and there was no writing or hieroglyphics and it seemed more like a power station than a tomb.

Sitting next to the Great Pyramid is the Sphinx with the body of a lion with a human head. At one time the Sphinx likely had lions head that was perfectly proportioned for the head of a lion, not the human head. This human head looks tiny sitting on top of the lion body and was likely carved out of lion’s head. The Sphinx was also built in 10,500 BC, probably to celebrate the constellation of Leo the Lion rising directly behind the sun. When I visited the Sphinx, it was obvious there are signs of water erosion all over the Sphinx again going back to the same time period. The Egyptians kept very careful historical records but there are no records of them building the Great Giza Pyramid.

Ancient Egyptian scriptures reveal the Tep Zepi, or the First Time when the “gods came from the sky” came down to Earth and raised the land from mud and water. Ptah (Gods of Heaven came to Earth from the Celestial Disk) installed as Egypt’s first Divine Ruler his own son RA. They flew with flying “boats” and brought laws and wisdom to man through a royal line of pharaohs. It is likely that a very advanced alien race came down and altered our genetic pool. Most ancient writings repeat the same theme that gods or extraterrestrial visitors came to make humans in their image.

Professor Paul Davies, from the Australian Center for Astrobiology at Macquarie University in Sydney, believes a cosmic greeting card could have been left in every human cell. The coded message would only be discovered once the human race had the technology to read and understand it.

According to the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia the peoples of the Caucasus Mountains in Russia refer to “Caucasian.” The term Caucasian race has been used to denote the general physical type of some or all of the populations of Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia (Middle East), Central Asia and South Asia. Historically, the term has been used to describe the entire population of these regions, without regard necessarily to skin tone.

For 20,000 years during this closing ice age – called the Upper Paleolithic period – a term referring only to the type of culture that existed amongst these early Homo sapiens – our ancestors, the White race’s ancestors, lived as hunter gatherers in Europe. Their physical remains and artifacts from this time are plentiful – and what is really amazing is how far spread out they were. This first race of people with whom we can claim a genetic affinity, were what is called the proto Nordic racial type – tall, light hair and eyes.

In certain isolated areas in Europe you can still find perfect living examples of this racial type, and they differ only slightly in height from modern day Nordics. This great proto Nordic race lived in a broad band spanning from Spain right across Europe all the way to central Asia and even to the Pacific Rim, where skeletal remains have been found as well. In Siberia and Asia they were eventually absorbed by the Mongoloid races and the same happened in the Pacific Rim – for example the Ainu people of Japan – that society’s highest class – are very clearly crosses of Mongoloids and Whites. They differ substantially from the rest of the Japanese population

The first great White Egyptian civilization was in fact predated by about some 3000 years by the great Sumerian civilization – another population whose racial makeup was predominantly Mediterranean with Nordic ruling elite. This civilization, founded between the two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, even built pyramids – called Ziggurats – of their own long before the Egyptians apparently stole the idea from them. By this time the modern day Nordic racial type had fully developed, and it may come as news to some of you that original large Nordic concentrations were not in fact in Scandinavia, but in modern day Ukraine and South Eastern Russia (hence Whites are mistakenly called Caucasians – after the Causacas Mountains).

The town of Kiev, was for example one of the biggest Nordic cities, dating from about 7000 years ago, and had a population of 20,000 – huge by standards of the time. These Nordics slowly crept westward, invading and re-invading Western Europe for a period of nearly 6000 years, finally resulting in the establishment of a new Nordic heartland in Northern Europe.

These original Nordic tribes had stone buildings and worked bronze and copper. How much of this metal working skill was passed south to the Middle Eastern civilizations remains a matter of debate. However, what is for sure is that successive waves of Nordic tribes started invading central and Southern Europe in earnest about 6 400 years ago, and caused the Mediterranean civilizations (the “Old European” civilizations) to topple. Nordic tribes occupied large regions of Turkey, Crete, Greece and Southern Europe and Italy. The invading Nordics did not kill the largely Mediterranean populations of these areas – obviously feeling some type of racial kinship, but instead just ruled over them.

Some Nordic tribes migrated into the Far East – as far as China, where some Nordic remains have been found in burial chambers. These Nordic tribes also invaded Egypt, but were in turn occupied by a Semitic invasion – the Hyksos, who we only expelled after 100 years of their rule. In the Arctic, the /Inuit never developed light skin, although most Asians do have light skin. It is generally thought the light skin is the result of mutations.

According to Faye Flam staff writer at the Philadelphia Inquirer, Penn State professor of Biological Anthropology, Mark Shriver and colleagues isolated a genetic mutation that contributed to European’s having white skin, a mutation that in zebra fish leads to the absence of the characteristic stripes. Mark Shriver indicates, there is apparently a ten percent of human genetic variation between Scandinavian versus West African races. Although we are similar there are obviously differences in skin color, hair and often eye color. There are also differences in illnesses among races. African-Americans have more diabetes, prostate cancer, and hypertension, while whites have more dementia and osteoporosis. I encourage these experts to look at the evidence for alien visitation, because it solves many scientific anomalies.

I realize this has been kept secret at the highest levels of government. Prince Philip and various high ranking personnel have revealed the well-kept secret. The discovery of DNA, (deoxyribonucleic acid) with all its implications of a very complicated genetic code creates additional evidence for intelligent design rather than theoretical evolution.

The DNA helix must have a planner, a designer. You are thousands of times more complex than even the most sophisticated computer who needed a designer and engineers to build. Even then you also have the spark of life needed to grow and reproduce! A well-known DNA scientist keeps encouraging me, who can’t talk openly states, “The three most interesting genetic anomalies are Rah-factor, HIV, and delta-CCR5. Apes and primitives are Rah plus (+,+), while whites and Asians are close to 25% Rh minus (-,-), just as if our ancestor were blonde alien (-,-) mixed with local (+,+) by Mendelian statistics. A slight selection against pregnancy by (-,-) women lowers that to 20%.

If we had defective HIV in our bodies, we would get antisense resistance to modern HIV. Yet many chimps contain defective HIV, while we do not, at least until 1955 when it was transferred from monkeys to man. If we come from apes, why don’t we see ancient HIV in our genome? “The most interesting mutation is for HIV-resistance, found by looking for homosexuals without AIDS. They were all found in Scandinavia as “delta-32 CCR5”. How to select for resistance to a virus which was not in man before 1955? Some people have shown that it might protect against smallpox or myxo, but why not in India or China where smallpox is rife? Why isn’t it in apes, given the millions of years that an identical gene in apes was exposed to viruses?

The reason is because both chromosomal copies must be deleted at once to give resistance, by a double-hit which is almost impossible randomly. Now we see that delta-32 CCR5 is found with a very recent origin in Finland-Mordovia, spread weakly to northern Russia and northern Europe, but not southern Europe, Africa, Asia, or elsewhere.

Also the Ashkenazi Jews have many strange genes. The most obvious source of this mutation would be those tall blond visitors, who may have crossed with local women a few thousand years ago. Their progeny would go on to raise our scientific level over 5000 years. You can easily access recent information by searching for keywords on Medline / Pubmed at NCBI, say “Rh factor” or “delta-CCR5” crossed with other terms for specificity!

I feel the ancient sacred Sumerian, Chinese, Indian, Jewish writings are correct when they tell us that extraterrestrials (the sons of God mated with the daughters of men, they were fair, and they took them wives of all which they chose, Genesis 6. (End)

The following 1992 case provides additional basis to the argument George Flier and other researchers are making suggesting that human extraterrestrials continue to impact humanity in a broad and invasive fashion. I would call the following an abduction case rather than a contactee case, because the male recipient Mr. Khoury a security guard, who passed a polygraph test, alleges that sexual relations were without his permission and against his will, imposed upon him while in an induced state of unconsciousness by an attractive tall blond extraterrestrial human female.

A second extraterrestrial human apparently was watching and was being instructed or instructing, leading one to speculate that this case is one of many. As one can see something went wrong for the extraterrestrials in this ET experiment as the abductee broke through the mental restraints.

This earth human woke up during the sexual encounter and broke free from the induced mental state, forcing both ET human females to leave after he bit the nipple in a defensive reaction against the female having sexual relations with him. This case is significant because DNA evidence of a rare nature was recovered. The abductee recovered two pubic hairs left behind by the ET human female that was then sent for DNA analysis. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUznIAGy_n8&feature=autoshare

“…the world’s first PCR (polymerase Chain Reaction) DNA profiling of a biological material implicated in an alien abduction experience. The analysis confirmed the hair came from someone who was biologically close to normal genetic, but of an unusual racial type – a rare Chinese Mongoloid – one of the rarest human lineages known, that lies further from the human mainstream than any other except African pygmies and aboriginals.

There was a strange anomaly of it being blonde to clear instead of black, as would be expected from the Asian type mitochondrial DNA. The study concluded, “The most probable donor of the hair must therefore be as (Khoury) claims: a tall blonde female who does not need much color in her hair or skin as a form of protection against the sun, perhaps because she doesn’t require it.” (End)

Such ET cases where there is forensic evidence and lie detector tests for the contactee and abductees provide powerful evidence that some contactee and abductee experiences are real, and gives important insight into the agendas and motives of the extraterrestrials involved. The interests are not just genetic of course, but our genetics and genome do appear to be of great interest to other ET races including the human ones connected to us genetically and culturally, as George Filer has pointed out.

George has already pointed out these tall blond Caucasian peoples once lived in China as is evidenced by around 500 mummies recovered. These mummies are really spectacular and well preserved as can be seen in this video. Like in other parts of the world some seem to be royalty in order to get this kind of preservation treatment. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRj-IR5Aqbg&feature=related Apparently, the information that goes with the mummies is that these people were believed at the time to be sun gods who had descended from the sky and ruled over the people. Notice the swastika on the metal plate in the video, were the Germans in the 1920’s and 1930’s on to something that got perverted and corrupted by the times? http://www.viewzone.com/vril22.html

http://www.facebook.com/notes/michael-lee-hill/an-actual-message-from-the-anunnaki-mankind-in-amnesia-flying-saucer-review-maga/2017197393092 Michael Hill found this interesting article from 1958 relating to the Anunnaki, in Flying Saucer Review. Gordon Creighton was a diplomat, publisher of Flying Saucer Review, and one of the most knowledgeable UFO/ET investigators of his time. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SDsYa7BTenk Where Gordon found this alleged Annunaki message, I have no idea.

An actual message from the Anunnaki – MANKIND IN AMNESIA (Flying Saucer Review Magazine © November-December 1958) Exhibit 19) Brinsley Le Poer Trench (Flying Saucer Review Magazine © November-December 1958)

“We are already here, among you. Some of us have always been here, with you, yet apart from, watching, and occasionally guiding you whenever the opportunity arose. Now, however, our numbers have been increased in preparation for a further step in the development of your planet: a step of which you are not yet aware… We have been confused with the gods of many world-religions, although we are not gods, but your fellow creatures, as you will learn directly before many more years have passed.

You will find records of our presence in the mysterious symbols of ancient Egypt, where we made ourselves known in order to accomplish certain ends. Our principal symbol appears in the religious art of your present civilization and occupies a position of importance upon the great seal of your country. (The United States of America) It has been preserved in certain secret societies founded originally to keep alive the knowledge of our existence and our intentions toward mankind.”

“We have left you certain landmarks, placed carefully in different parts of the globe, but most prominently in Egypt where we established our headquarters upon the occasion of our last overt, or, as you would say, public appearance. At that time the foundations of your present civilization were ‘laid in the earth’ and the most ancient of your known landmarks established by means that would appear as miraculous to you now as they did to the pre-Egyptians, so many thousands of years ago. Since that time the whole art of building, in stone, has become symbolic, too many of you, of the work in hand—the building of the human race towards its perfection.”

“Your ancestors knew us in those days as preceptors and as friends. Now, through your own efforts, you have almost reached, in your majority, a new step on the long ladder of your liberation. You have been constantly aided by our watchful ‘inspiration’, and hindered only by the difficulties natural to your processes of physical and moral development… ”

“You have lately achieved the means of destroying yourselves. Do not be hasty in your self-congratulation. Yours is not the first civilization to have achieved—and used—such means. Yours will not be the first civilization to be offered the means of preventing that destruction and proceeding, in the full glory of its accumulated knowledge, to establish an era of enlightenment upon the earth.” “However, if you do accept the means offered you, and if you establish such a ‘millennium’ upon the basis of your present accomplishments, yours will be the first civilization to do so.

ALWAYS BEFORE, THE KNOWLEDGE, THE TECHNIQUES, THE INSTRUCTIONS, HAVE BECOME THE POSSESSIONS OF A CHOSEN FEW: A FEW CHOSE THEMSELVES BY THEIR OWN OPEN-MINDED AND CLEAR-SIGHTED REALIZATION OF ‘THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME’. THEY ENDEAVORED TO PASS ON THEIR KNOWLEDGE IN THE BEST POSSIBLE FORM, AND BY THE MOST ENDURING MEANS AT THEIR COMMAND.

In a sense they succeeded, but in another sense their failure equaled their success. Human acceptance is, to a very large extent, measurable by human experience. Succeeding generations, who never knew our actual presence, translated the teachings of their elders in the terms of their own experience. For instance, a cross-sectional drawing, much simplified and stylized by many copyings, of one of our traveling machines became the ‘Eye of Horus”, and then other eyes of other gods. Finally, the ancient symbol that was once an accurate representation of an important mechanical device has been given surprising connotations by the modern priesthood of psychology.”

“The important fact is, however, that we are here, among you, and that you, as a world-race, will know it before very much longer! The time is almost ripe but, as with all ripening things, the process may not be hurried artificially without danger of damaging the fruit. There is a right time for every action, and the right time for our revelation of ourselves to your era is approaching.”

“Some of you have seen our ‘advanced guard’ already. You have met us often in the streets of your cities, and you have not noticed us. But when we flash through your skies in the ancient traditional vehicles [Vimanas, see Exhibit 14, this paper—GJ] you are amazed, and those of you who open your mouths and tell of what you have seen are accounted dupes and fools. Actually you are prophets, seers in the true sense of the word. You in Kansas and Oklahoma, you in Oregon and in California, and Idaho, you know what you have seen: do not be dismayed by meteorologists. Their business is the weather. One of you says, ‘I saw a torpedo-shaped object’. Others report, ‘disc-like objects’, some of you say ‘spherical objects’, or ‘platter-like objects’. You are all reporting correctly and accurately what you saw, and in most cases you are describing the same sort of vehicle.”

“… Now that the art of manufacturing plastic materials has reached a certain perfection among you, perhaps you can imagine a material, almost transparent to the rays of ordinary visible light, yet strong enough to endure the stresses of extremely rapid flight. Look again at the great nebulae, and think of the construction of your own galaxy, and behold the universal examples of what we have found to be the perfect shape for an object which is to travel through what you still fondly refer to as ‘empty’ space.”

In the centre of the discus, gyroscopically controlled within a central sphere of the same transparent material, our control rooms revolve freely, accommodating themselves and us to flat or edgewise flight. Both methods are suited to your atmosphere, and when we convert abruptly from one to the other, as we are sometimes obliged to do, and you are watching, our machines seem suddenly to appear—or to disappear. At our possible speeds your eyes, untrained and unprepared for the maneuver, do make mistakes—but not the mistakes your scientists so often accuse them of making.”

“We pass over your hilltops in horizontal flight. You see and report a torpedo-shaped object. We pass over, in formation, flying vertically ‘edge-on’… Or we go over at night, jet-slits glowing, and you see an orange disc. In any event you see us, and in any event we do not care. If we chose to remain invisible, we could do so, easily, and, in fact, we have done so almost without exception for hundreds of years. But you must become accustomed to our shapes in your skies, for one day they will be familiar, friendly, and reassuring sights.”

“This time, it is to be hoped that the memory of them, passed on to your children and their children, will be clear and precise. That you will not cause them to forget, as your ancestors forgot, the meaning of the diagrams and the instructions we will leave with you. If you do fail, as other civilizations have failed, we will see your descendants wearing wiring-diagrams for simple machines as amulets, expecting the diagrams to do what their forefathers were taught the completed article would accomplish. Then their children, forgetting even that much—or little—would preserve the amulet as a general protective device—or as an intellectual curiosity—or perhaps as a religious symbol. Such is the cycle of forgetfulness!” – The Anunnaki (End)

We exopolitical investigators are encouraged to speculate based upon the evidence, and our general knowledge of extraterrestrials, that these people ancient people were or are descended from ET humans and so we and the tall blonde ET human extraterrestrials and others with dark hair and Eurasian features may share the same ancestors. This would show just how closely related we really are to some ET humans.

Naturally if this is so, the human extraterrestrials would have a strong family interest in continued experimentation and tracking of bloodlines to the present day. If one takes time to run through the humanoid cases these tall blond humans are frequently mentioned indicating that they have been having a large impact on earth humanity for a long time.

The range of species within the human extraterrestrial collective or mega-population seems to very large and run the gamut between at least several species of extraterrestrial humans almost exactly like ourselves, to the Tall Whites who stand out if not disguised, to quite different as in the Fontes case, to what appear to be biological robots partially constructed from human and other non-human species DNA along with inorganic materials and machine technologies.

However others like the well respected and credible George Filer, are also catching on and together we are bearing down on the truth from multiple individual perspectives and experiences even while other investigators and researchers find themselves bogged down in denial or have become so loose minded that they go over the cliff into delusion. It seems to me that most people can’t tolerate a high degree of uncertainty in their lives.

It seems to me many folks don’t have the patience and or capability to mine and process all this UFO/ET ore in order to extract the facts properly through a lifetime of work. Many people take the easy way out and retreat, on the one hand into either denial beliefs, or on the other hand irrational disinformation induced delusionary beliefs when confronted by UFO/ET information.

Why in the world so many people in the UFO community would want to feed on copious amounts of intellectual false sensationalistic contactee garbage when there are some really good credible cases of human ET contact available is beyond me.
While most cases of extensive extraterrestrial contact involve single or just several individuals at the most there are a few very controversial contact cases that involve many people and that seem to span continents.

Some believe these cases are real, others think they are cults, but it seems to me that the people being interviewed are sincere and I have been impressed as to the depth of the investigations especially the Chile case where a mainstream documentary was made that uncovered even more witnesses and even exposed a fraudulent contactee hidden in the mist of the real contactees involved.

I am a bit reluctant to put these cases in this book but having thought on this a lot I feel that the readers should be aware of these rare group cases in spite of the controversy surrounding them. I do find myself turning my spam filter up a bit when researching these cases because of the complexity of the cases and the possibility that these could be cult related. We just need to take these cases as part of the greater context within which this book has been written.

Recently I became aware of a longstanding extraterrestrial human contact case called, Friendship that if true involves many people both in Europe and in Chile, South America. The only other alleged contact case involving so many people that I am aware of is the controversial Ummo Case. What I found compelling about the following two videos was that the contactees seem very sincere and as the investigators investigated they found even more individuals that claimed contact especially in the Chile case.

In clips 11/12 and 12/12 there seems to be an Annunaki connection. While there is a huge amount of historical evidence of the Annunaki in the Bible, the Hindu Scriptures and the Sumerian clay tablets modern cases are hard to come by. It’s still a bit hard to determine if these two cases are really related, the one in Italy and the one in Chile. Italian Friendship case: http://www.ufo-blogger.com/2011/05/project-il-caso-amicizia.html Chile Friendship case: http://www.ufo-blogger.com/2010/06/extraterrestrial-humanoid-had-lived-in.html

The following article is from exopolitical investigator Paola Harris’s website, who while not the writer of this article, has investigated the Italy Friendship case. http://www.paolaharris.com/masscontact.htm

Mass Contact – A Review, Aliens Among Us! By Barbara Barbatelli.

In these days the Italian UFO community is under shock after the recent publication of a new, extraordinary book by Edizioni Nexus. Its title is “Contattismi di Massa” (“Mass Contacts”) and was written by Professor Stefano Breccia, a famous and esteemed engineer from Abruzzi. His impressive curriculum shows us a long academic career in L’Aquila’s and many other Italian and foreign Universities. He is also a founding member of the Italian Ufological Centre (CUN).
The author recalls and investigates many cases in which contacts with aliens did not occur to single, isolated individuals but, on the contrary, involved entire groups of people, more or less organized in communities, who lived together the same experiences. Some of these groups decided to reveal what was happening, some others preferred to keep everything secret.

This completely new and intriguing scenery will open to researchers the possibility, for the first time in Ufology, to investigate on crossed sources of information, to trace the many witnesses involved, verifying their reciprocal links, and to study facts, times and places from many and different points of view at the same time.

The book re-opens and deepens, with new and never published details, the famous case of “UMMO”. This was the name of a race of self-defining extraterrestrials who sent for decades an incredible amount of letters to famous scientists and researchers living in Spain, France, and Italy etc. These letters were filled with extremely complicated notions denoting very advanced scientific knowledge. Many of the scientists who had received them later admitted they had been inspired by those letters, owing to that superior science many of their inventions and discoveries.

The book also shows a completely unknown corollary of the “UMMO case” involving central Italy and, more specifically, the town of Rome and the archaeological Etruscan ruins of Veio. During the seventies in those places acted, completely undisturbed, many extraterrestrials calling themselves “Italic Ummites”. They looked like humans and for this reason could perfectly hide and integrate in our society. These beings, who possessed a technology well far beyond ours, produced many phenomena for us indistinguishable from magic and used their abilities to direct and manipulate a group of young UFO enthusiasts.

But the real “bomb” contained in “Mass Contacts” blasts when we read the third chapter: The Story of “FRIENDSHIP”. In this chapter we assist to the fall of a secrecy that had enveloped for decades a case cited very sporadically and suspiciously only by few investigators (the best informed ones). They had some evidences suggesting that in Italy, from 1956 to 1978, something TREMENDOUS had happened, but all their efforts to discover the truth had failed. The fact was that the group involved in the case had decided to keep everything secret; many of them were famous and influent people and could not ruin their lives and careers saying they had met face to face with extraterrestrial people. They knew the world was not ready yet.

Now at last, Professor Stefano Breccia (a member of “Friendship” himself, as we can easily infer), providing many impressive documents and testimonies, disclosures the truth on the entire story to give homage and justice to the memory of his big friend, the late Dr. Bruno Sammaciccia, pivot figure in the “Friendship” group, and gives him the word publishing a long taped interview to his friend.
Professor Bruno Sammaciccia was a well-known Psychologist and Theologian from Pescara. He wrote many volumes on religious subjects including the study of miracles, holy relics, the Order of San Francis of Assisi and the history of compared Religions.

His works have been translated in many languages and are well represented in all main religious libraries all over the world. He received the UNESCO prize “Man of the Year” in 1982, was friend of many important people and high prelates and the same Pope Karol Woytila, at the time Cardinal of Cracow, wrote a friendly dedication on one of his books.

His public and irreprehensible image hid a fantastic and science fiction-like reality: From 1956 to 1978 Bruno Sammaciccia and many other people had continuative and intense contacts with extraterrestrial entities coming from planets orbiting around many different stars, many light years distant from our Solar System, forming part of a Galactic Federation.

Just like Enoch Wallace, the leading character of Clifford Simak’s “Way Station”, Bruno Sammaciccia found himself in the middle of an incredible passage of aliens on this planet Earth. They had many underground bases; the biggest one was under the Adriatic Sea and was long more than one hundred kilometers. Bruno Sammaciccia’s duties ranged from buying and transporting goods to the underground bases, to organizing a selected group of terrestrials capable to understand the alien knowledge and to spread it more and more to humanity.

The whole operation had to remain secret. The total number of the lucky earthlings admitted to such a fantastic group is esteemed from Professor Breccia in no more than 200 people, including similar groups in Austria, Germany and Russia. They spontaneously called themselves “Friendship”, “Freundshaft”, “Amitiè” and, of course, “Amicizia”, because the wonderful “human” warmness of the space visitors had suggested in everyone the same feeling.

Bruno Sammaciccia gave to his “Friends” the code-name of “W56” (“W” from the sign of victory and “56” from the year of the first contact). He describes them as human in the shape but very different in tallness, ranging from one meter to three meters and a half…in one occasion he and other people near Pescara saw from a distance some giants six meters tall!

The aliens “normally” tall showed to be perfectly fit in our society and had a knowledge of our world and our history much deeper than ours. They had technologies like teleportation or interstellar travel but enjoyed themselves driving our cars or piloting our planes. They loved our foods and they loved smoking too! They knew that exceeding in some habits can be dangerous and used to take regularly some antidotes. Anyway the different atmosphere and gravity of their re-created environment could completely decontaminate bodies from toxic substances; this healing effect was experimented also from Sammaciccia and his human friends who had access to underground bases.

The “W56” aliens said they wanted to help humans to survive because, especially during the last decades, human civilization had chosen very dangerous paths, blindly trusting in science and forgetting morals. They said that the other civilizations, in space and on earth, who had made the same errors, had invariably perished. They could not interfere at a mass level with us because our culture would have been destroyed, but they could gently address with their teaching a little number of selected terrestrials to a better future, and their messages had to be spread in this way to more and more people, generation after generation.

Unfortunately the “W56” were fiercely struggled by a hostile race they called “our enemy brothers” and for this reason also our unaware human race was involved in some kind of “Star War”. Sammaciccia re-named these enemies “CTR” (from “contraries” and one of the duties of the “Friendship” group consisted in helping W56’s efforts to stop CTR’s evil actions. The CTR are described like totally similar to us and this characteristic made them extremely dangerous, they were perfectly fit in our society, hyper technological and totally lacking in morals.

After almost thirty years of these fantastic interactions the history of “Friendship” came to a tragic end. The W56 were defeated, the CTR destroyed the enormous bases where also humans had gone many times and the Adriatic Sea erupted with many water columns, causing death and fear among fishermen in 1978. Sammaciccia states that humans too were culpable for this horrible end, because they had not trusted each other and they had not supported enough their alien “Friends”.

Anyway W 56 promised they would come back at the beginning of the new century and Bruno Sammaciccia ends his long interview to Stefano Breccia hoping to see them again. Sadly the theologian died in 2003 not realizing his wishes, at least in this world. Now we have his extremely touching words and we have the duty to study the enormous amount of verifiable and concrete facts contained in Stefano Breccia’s volume.

Talking about “facts”, at the end of this book we can see a very clear photo of a W56. The person is in full light and all his body and face characteristics are perfectly detailed. For the first time in Ufology the image of a so-called “alien” is so clear, so “Human” (how tall is he?) and with no trace of photographic effects to make it more “exotic”. Now researchers and debunkers will obviously try to verify the photo confronting that face with all similar faces they’ll be able to discover and, in case, they will probably open also the police archives! That face is too recognizable; what happened if somebody would identify that guy saying:” HEY, I know him, he is my cousin!(or my brother, friend, husband etc…)”? the whole story would fall, of course.

So, why Dr.Breccia exposed his name and his career to such a great risk? Perhaps because he is totally certain that the person portrayed in that photo was not from this Earth. If the “Friendship” story is true it represents one of the most important cases in Ufology and an immense heritage for humanity. (End)

Perhaps the reader may be wondering how mega-populations of extraterrestrials could organize themselves while traveling hundreds of light years or maybe even billions of light years away from each other using exotic propulsion systems that defeat space and time. The answer seems to already be out in the public domain and it is that of communication by quantum entanglement.

Quantum entanglement communications would seem to be the way ETs communicate and organize themselves across vast distances and quantum entanglement communication is being proved to work with new developments happening on a regular basis. It’s well known that many ET races are telepathic which seems to be based on quantum entanglement. Forget about primitive electromagnetic communications as the propagandists of SETI would have you believe in their false time line narrative to ET contact. In reality I have been showing in this book that contact began long ago in the real narrative with classified shadow governments now interacting and coordinating with several ET civilizations.

The very fact that all this information about quantum communications is coming out in the public domain leads me to believe that just as in other areas, black technologies in the classified world are way ahead of public knowledge and I would suspect that the NSA already is far advanced in transmitting and receiving ET quantum communications. The Dan Sherman case indicates that. Also if our secret space fleet is already traveling to the stars as has been suggested by credible people like Ben Rich, then we can expect that the fleet could already be using instantaneous quantum communications to communicate with and organize the fleet and to communicate back with the home planet just as ET seems to be doing.

The reader can see from this article that entanglement communications are now far advanced from just sending messages via photons and other high energy particles. I would expect hear any day that they can teleport matter via quantum entanglement and not just photons and other small high energy particles. http://www.livescience.com/17264-quantum-entanglement-macroscopic-diamonds.html I guess if intelligent beings become really advanced enough they could travel by teleportation rather than even using exotic propulsion systems.

“Scientists have linked two diamonds in a mysterious process called entanglement that is normally only seen on the quantum scale. Entanglement is so weird that Einstein dubbed it “spooky action at a distance.” It’s a strange effect where one object gets connected to another so that even if they are separated by large distances, an action performed on one will affect the other. Entanglement usually occurs with subatomic particles, and was predicted by the theory of quantum mechanics, which governs the realm of the very small. But now physicists have succeeded in entangling two macroscopic diamonds, demonstrating that quantum mechanical effects are not limited to the microscopic scale.

“If the two diamonds weren’t entangled, the researchers would expect each detector to register a changed laser beam about 50 percent of the time. It’s similar to tossing a coin, where random chance would lead to heads about half the time and tails the other half the time on average. Instead, because the two diamonds were linked, they found that one detector measured the change every time, and the other detector never fired. The two diamonds, it seemed, were so connected they reacted as a single entity, rather than two individual objects.” (End)

In this article scientists show we are well on our way in the public domain to use quantum entanglement communication over large distances. http://www.quantum.at/research/quantum-teleportation-communication-entanglement/entangled-photons-over-144-km.html

“Here we report a significant step towards satellite based quantum communication by transmitting an entangled photon over a distance of 144 km between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife via an optical free-space link. The transmitted photon was received in the Optical Ground Station of the European Space Agency, and the entangled partner photon was detected locally at the transmitter. We have succeeded in establishing quantum correlations under experimental constraints and conditions characteristic for a Space-to-ground experiment.“ (End)

More to the point the following article speculates that telepathy involves quantum entanglement. http://www.hardsf.org/HSFTEnta.htm “Some people have suggested that psychic powers do exist or other communication could exist using quantum entanglement to allow instantaneous messages over any distance.”
Quantum entanglement is an accepted part of quantum physics. The concept is often associated with an argument Einstein and others used to try to demonstrate limitations of quantum theory and the Uncertainty Principle. Einstein described an experiment in which two particles would be created by the same process, but would head in opposite directions.

If at some time you were to establish certain attributes of one of the particles, you could use that to determine that attribute of the other particle. Einstein argued this could be used to get information on particles that was inconsistent with the Uncertainty Principle and would indicate that the particles actually have definite properties at all times rather than just probabilities of values.

However, what physicists have come to accept is that this does not mean that testing one particle tells us about attributes the other particle already had. Instead, it is believed that when one particle is tested that fact is instantaneously conveyed to the other particle which then is forced to acquire a particular property. This takes place by some means that does not involve exchange of photons or other means limited by the speed of light.” (End)

In summary the evidence for human and humanoid extraterrestrial contact is overwhelming as the reader has seen if they fully investigate these thousands of contact cases. I think the evidence is beyond a reasonable doubt that there is this mega-population of humans and humanoids that most likely are spread across our universe.

Who knows maybe if there is a multi-universe with many dimensions this human collective most likely has spread beyond our own universe and into these other dimensions and multi-universes. I am reminded by those with intimate inside knowledge of the classified world that tell us that the truth is beyond what we can possibly imagine.

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Mega Fail: 17 Signs That The European Financial System Is Heading For An Implosion Of Historic Proportions

Posted by Admin on December 22, 2011

http://www.pakalertpress.com/2011/12/14/mega-fail-17-signs-that-the-european-financial-system-is-heading-for-an-implosion-of-historic-proportions/

Posted on  on December 14, 2011 // Leave Your Comment

The Economic Collapse

What happens when you attempt a cold shutdown of one of the biggest debt spirals that the world has ever seen?  Well, we are about to find out.  The politicians in Europe have decided that they are going to “take their medicine” and put strict limits on budget deficits.  They have also decided that the European Central Bank is not going to engage in reckless money printing to “paper over” the debts of troubled nations.  This may all sound wonderful to many of you, but the reality is that there is always a tremendous amount of pain whenever a massive debt spiral is interrupted.  Just look at what happened to Greece.  Greece was forced to raise taxes and implement brutal austerity measures.  That caused the economy to slow down and tax revenues to decline and so government debt figures did not improve as much as anticipated.  So Greece was forced to implement even more brutal austerity measures.  Well, that caused the economy to slow down even more and tax revenues declined again.  In Greece this cycle has been repeated several times and now Greece is experiencing a full-blown economic depression.  100,000 businesses have closed and a third of the population is living in poverty.  But now Germany and France intend to impose the “Greek solution” on the rest of Europe.  This is going to create the conditions needed for a “perfect storm” to develop and it means that the European financial system is heading for an implosion of historic proportions.

The easiest way to deal with a debt spiral is to let it keep going and going.  That is what the United States has done.  Sure, “kicking the can down the road” makes the crisis much worse in the long run, but bringing the pain into the present is not a lot of fun either.

Europe has decided to do something that is unprecedented in the post-World War II era.  They have decided to put very strict limits on budget deficits and to impose tough sanctions on any nations that break the rules.  They have also decided that they are not going to allow the European Central Bank to fund the debts of troubled nations with reckless money printing.

Without a doubt, this is a German solution for a German-dominated Europe.  Germany does not want to pay for the debt mistakes of other EU nations, and so they are shoving bitter austerity down the throats of those that have gotten into too much debt.

But this solution is not going to be implemented without a massive amount of pain.

In fact, this solution is going to make a massive financial collapse much more likely.  The following are 17 signs that the European financial system is heading for an implosion of historic proportions….

#1 As noted above, when you reduce government spending you also slow down the economy.  We have already seen what brutal austerity has done to Greece – 100,000 businesses have shut down, a third of the population is living in poverty and there is rioting in the streets.  Now that brand of brutal austerity is going to be imposed in almost every single nation in Europe.

#2 As the economy slows down in Europe, unemployment will rise.  There are already 10 different European nations that have an “official” unemployment rate of over 10 percent and the next recession has not even officially started yet.

#3 Before it is all said and done, the EU nations that are drowning in debt will likely need trillions of euros in bailout money just to survive.  But at this point Germany and the other wealthy nations of northern Europe are sick and tired of bailouts and do not plan to hand over trillions of euros.

#4 The European Central Bank could theoretically print up trillions of euros and buy up massive amounts of European sovereign debt, but this would go against existing treaties and most of the major politicians in Europe are steadfastly against this right now.  But without such intervention it is hard to see how the ECB will be able to keep bond yields from absolutely skyrocketing for long.  In fact, without massive ECB intervention it is hard to see how the eurozone is going to be able to stay together at all.  Graeme Leach, the chief economist at the Institute of Directors, said the following recently….

“Unless the ECB begins to operate as a sovereign lender of last resort function, with massive purchases of eurozone public debt, the inexorable logic is that the eurozone will break up.”

#5 European leaders are hoping that the new treaty that was just agreed to will be ratified by the end of the summer.  In reality, it will probably take much longer than that.  German Chancellor Angela Merkel has made it clear that the solution to this debt crisis is going to take a long time to implement….

“It’s a process, and this process will take years.”

Unfortunately, Europe does not have years.  Europe is rapidly running out of time.  A massive financial crisis is steamrolling right at them and they need solutions right now.

#6 Sadly, the cold, hard reality of the matter is that none of the fundamental problems that Europe is facing were fixed by this recent “agreement” as Ambrose Evans-Pritchard recently noted in one of his columns….

There is no shared debt issuance, no fiscal transfers, no move to an EU Treasury, no banking licence for the ESM rescue fund, and no change in the mandate of the European Central Bank.

In short, there is no breakthrough of any kind that will convince Asian investors that this monetary union has viable governance or even a future.

Germany has kept the focus exclusively on fiscal deficits even though everybody must understand by now that this crisis was not caused by fiscal deficits (except in the case of Greece). Spain and Ireland were in surplus, and Italy had a primary surplus.

#7 Nobody wants to lend to European banks right now.  Everyone knows that there are dozens of European banks in danger of failing, and nobody wants to throw any more money into those black holes.  The U.S.Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank have been lending them money, but a lot of European banks are already starting to run out of “acceptable forms of collateral” for those loans as one Australian news source recently explained….

“If anyone thinks things are getting better, they simply don’t understand how severe the problems are,” a London executive at a global bank said. “A major bank could fail within weeks.”

Others said many continental banks, including French, Italian and Spanish lenders, were close to running out of the acceptable forms of collateral, such as US Treasury bonds, that could be used to finance short-term loans.

Some have been forced to lend out their gold reserves to maintain access to US dollar funding.

So will the U.S. Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank keep lending them money once they are out of acceptable collateral?

If not, we could start to see banks fail in rapid succession.

Charles Wyplosz, a professor of international economics at Geneva’s Graduate Institute, is absolutely certainthat we are going to see some major European banks collapse….

“Banks will collapse, including possibly a number of French banks that are very exposed to Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain.”

#8 Not only does nobody want to lend money to them, major banks all over Europe are also dramatically cutting back on lending to consumers and businesses as they attempt to meet new capital-adequacy requirements by next June.

According to renowned financial journalistAmbrose Evans-Pritchard, European banks need to reduce the amount of lending on their books by about 7 trillion dollars in order to get down to safe levels….

Europe’s banks face a $7 trillion lending contraction to bring their balance sheets in line with the US and Japan, threatening to trap the region in a credit crunch and chronic depression for a decade.

When nobody wants to lend to the banks, and when the banks severely cut back on lending to others, that is called a “credit crunch”.  In such an environment, it is incredibly difficult to avoid a major recession.

#9 European banks are absolutely overloaded with “toxic assets” that they are desperate to get rid of.  Just as we saw with U.S. banks back in 2008, major European banks are busy trying to unload mountains of worthless assets that have a book value of trillions of euros.  Unfortunately for the banks, virtually nobodywants to buy them.

#10 European bond yields are still incredibly high even though the European Central Bank has spent over 274 billion dollars buying up European government bonds.

Up until now, the European Central Bank has been taking money out of the system (by taking deposits or by selling assets for example) whenever it injects new money into the system by buying bonds.  That makes this different from the quantitative easing that the U.S. Federal Reserve has done.  But at some point the European Central Bank is going to run out of ways to take money out of the system, and when that happens either the Germans will have to allow the ECB to print money out of thin air to buy bonds with or we will finally see the market determine the true value of European government bonds.

#11 Bond yields are going to become even more important in 2012, because huge mountains of European sovereign debt are scheduled to be rolled over next year.  For example, Italy must roll over approximately 20 percent of its entire sovereign debt during 2012.

#12 Once the new treaty is ratified, eurozone governments will lose the power to respond to a major recession by dramatically increasing government spending.  So if the governments of Europe cannot spend more money in response to the coming financial crisis, and if the ECB cannot print more money in response to the coming financial crisis, then what is going to keep the coming recession from turning into a full-blown depression?

#13 Credit rating agencies are warning that more credit downgrades may be coming in Europe. For example, Moody’s recently stated the following….

“While our central scenario remains that the euro area will be preserved without further widespread defaults, shocks likely to materialise even under this ‘positive’ scenario carry negative credit and rating implications in the coming months. And the longer the incremental approach to policy persists, the greater the likelihood of more severe scenarios, including those involving multiple defaults by euro area countries and those additionally involving exits from the euro area.”

#14 S&P has put 15 members of the eurozone (including Germany) on review for a possible credit downgrade.

#15 The stock prices of many major European banks are in the process of collapsing.  If you doubt this, just check out the charts in this article.

#16 Bank runs have begun in some parts of Europe.  For example, a recent article posted on Yahoo Newsdescribed what has been going on in Latvia….

Latvia’s largest bank scrambled Monday to head off a run among depositors who were gripped by rumours of the bank’s imminent ruin.

Weekend rumours that Swedbank was facing legal and liquidity problems in Estonia and Sweden sent thousands of Latvians to bank machines on Sunday, with some lines reaching as many as 50 people.

The Greek banking system is literally on the verge of collapse.  According to a recent Der Spiegel article, the run on Greek banks is rapidly accelerating….

He means that the outflow of funds from Greek bank accounts has been accelerating rapidly. At the start of 2010, savings and time deposits held by private households in Greece totalled €237.7 billion — by the end of 2011, they had fallen by €49 billion. Since then, the decline has been gaining momentum. Savings fell by a further €5.4 billion in September and by an estimated €8.5 billion in October — the biggest monthly outflow of funds since the start of the debt crisis in late 2009.

#17 There are already signs that European economic activisty (as well as global economic activity) is really starting to slow down.  Just consider the following statistics from a recent article by Stephen Lendman….

In November, French business confidence fell for the eighth consecutive month. In October, Japanese machinery orders dropped 6.9%, following an 8.2% plunge in September.

South Africa just reported a 5.6% drop in manufacturing activity. Britain recorded a 0.7% decline. China’s October exports fell 1.7% after dropping 3.8% in September.

Korea’s exports are down three consecutive months. Singapore’s were off in September and October. Indonesia’s plunged 8.5% in October after slipping 2% in September. India’s imploded 18.3% after being flat in September.

Are you starting to get the picture?

Europe is in a massive amount of trouble.

The equation is simple….

Brutal austerity + toxic levels of government debt + rising bond yields + a lack of confidence in the financial system + banks that are massively overleveraged + a massive credit crunch = A financial implosion of historic proportions

Unless something truly dramatic happens, the economy of Europe is a dead duck.

There is no way that Europe is going to be able to substantially reduce the flow of money coming from national governments and substantially reduce the flow of money coming from the banks and still be able to avoid a major recession.

Look, I want it to be very clear that I am in no way advocating government debt in this article.  It is just that under the debt-based monetary paradigm that we are all operating under, there is no way that you can dramatically reduce government spending without experiencing a whole lot of pain.

An economic “perfect storm” is developing in Europe.  All of the things that need to happen for a major recession to occur are falling into place.

So does anyone out there disagree with me?  Does anyone think that Europe is going to be just fine?

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Gaddafi’s family to sue NATO

Posted by Admin on October 28, 2011

http://in.news.yahoo.com/gaddafis-family-sue-nato-111803151.html

By Ria Novosti | IANS – Wed, Oct 26, 2011

Paris, Oct 26 (IANS/RIA Novosti) Relatives of slain Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi will sue NATO in the International Military Court in The Hague for war crime charges, Gaddafi’s family lawyer said.

‘NATO helicopters opened fire on (Gaddafi’s) convoy. This convoy did not pose any threat to civilians. It was an operation to eliminate the Libyan leader, planned by the North Atlantic alliance,’ Marcel Ceccaldi was quoted as saying by France-based Europe1 radio station.

The lawyer also criticized the decision to display Gaddafi’s corpse at a shopping centre in Misrata for four days.

Gaddafi, who ruled Libya for 42 years, died shortly after being captured alive by National Transitional Council fighters near his hometown Sirte Oct 20.

The UN human rights office as well as Russia and the US have called for a probe into the leader’s killing.

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Muslim World Agenda & News Sept 29/11

Posted by Admin on September 30, 2011

http://www.galacticfriends.com/updates/truth-and-growth-education/5789-muslim-world-agenda-a-news-sept-2911.html

Muslim World Agenda & News Sept 29/11

Chancellor Angela Merkel said that Germans have failed to grasp how Muslim immigration has transformed their country and will have to come to terms with more mosques than churches throughout the countryside, according to the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung daily. “Our country is going to carry on changing, and integration is also a task for the society taking up the task of dealing with immigrants,” Ms. Merkel told the daily newspaper. “For years we’ve been deceiving ourselves about this. Mosques, for example, are going to be a more prominent part of our cities than they were before.”

Germany, with a population of 4-5 million Muslims, has been divided in recent weeks  by a debate Over remarks by the Bundesbank’s Thilo Sarrazin, who argued Turkish and Arab immigrants were failing to integrate and were swamping Germany with a higher birth rate.

The Chancellor’s remarks represent the first official acknowledgement that Germany ,like other European countries, is destined to become a stronghold of Islam. She has admitted that the country will soon become a stronghold. In France , 30% of children age 20 years and below are Muslims. The ratio in Paris and Marseille has soared to 45%. In southern France , there are more mosques than churches.

The situation within the United Kingdom is not much different. In the last 30 years, the Muslim population there has climbed from 82,000 to 2.5 million. Presently, there are over 1000 mosques throughout Great Britain – many of which were converted from churches.

In Belgium , 50% of the newborns are Muslims and reportedly its Islamic population hovers around 25%. A similar statistic holds true for The Netherlands. It’s the same story in Russia where one in five inhabitants is a Muslim.

Muammar Gaddafi recently stated that “There are signs that Allah will grant victory to Islam in Europe without a sword, without a gun, without conquest. We don’t need terrorists; we don’t need homicide bombers. The 50 plus million Muslims (in Europe )will turn it into the Muslim Continent within a few decades.” The numbers support him.

I think the Muslims are smarter than the Europeans. Muslims will reproduce like rabbits but the Islamic Countries do not need to feed the Muslims.  Send them to European Countries and let the Europeans feed them and bring them up.  Now who is “smarter”??  . (Folks the Asians have a similar agenda . Each country has the responsibility to take care of there own citizens and economies fairly they should not be allowed to impose and burden other countries with there citizens. It is a legal and moral responsibility of each countries governments to protect there own economic stability by honouring there own citizens first and for most and not allow foreign influences to hold sway in any way over our sovereignty especially dark ET Religious programming treachery Tami)

It is odious treachery that brought them to other countries so it is our responsibility to deport any and all threats to our sovereignty way of life and health and safety of our present and future societies. I have been told that most immigration policies like the banking agenda has been based on fraud and criminality so most immigrants will be deported back to there countries of origin. I am not against other cultures I am against willful attempts to undermine sovereignty of countries and destroy there way of life and economies! Tami

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BREAKING NEWS: Mounting Evidence that Dominique Strauss Kahn was Framed

Posted by Admin on July 10, 2011

http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=25533

Global Research, July 7, 2011
While the media has gone to arms length to obfuscate the matter, there is mounting evidence that Dominique Strauss Kahnwas framed.

According to media reports, the 32-year-old Guinean Sofitel housemaid received the modest sum of 100,000 dollars paid into her bank account. The New York Times acknowledges the payment but fails to analyze the source of these payments. In an utterly confused statement, the NYT suggests that the money was deposited in the housemaid’s account by her Guinean boy friend who is serving time in a high security prison:

According to the two officials, the woman had a phone conversation with an incarcerated man within a day of her encounter with Mr. Strauss-Kahn in which she discussed the possible benefits of pursuing the charges against him. The conversation was recorded.

That man, the investigators learned, had been arrested on charges of possessing 400 pounds of marijuana. He is among a number of individuals who made multiple cash deposits, totaling around $100,000, into the woman’s bank account over the last two years. The deposits were made in Arizona, Georgia, New York and Pennsylvania.

The investigators also learned that she was paying hundreds of dollars every month in phone charges to five companies. The woman had insisted she had only one phone and said she knew nothing about the deposits except that they were made by a man she described as her fiancé and his friends. (NYT, July 1, 2011, emphasis added)

The bank records of the housemaid, not to mention the record of her telephone calls, are known to police investigators, yet both the media and the prosecutors have failed to reveal the identity of the persons who instigated these money transfers.

The reports suggest that they may be “drug related”, thereby casually dismissing the likelihood that the money could have been part of the framing of DSK. The reports also mention that the money deposits were made “over the last two years”, thereby conveying  the impression that they bear no relationship to the DSK affair.

The exact timing of these money transfers including the identity of  senders are known to police investigators. Why has this information not been released?

If the 100,000 dollars had indeed been deposited into her bank account in the course of the last two years, why on earth would she be working as a housemaid?

Regime change at the IMF

Why was the substance of the housemaid’s false accusations not released at an earlier stage?  Who was protecting her?

Why did the media wait to reveal information which confirms DSK’s innocence.

This information was known to the prosecutors at an early stage of the investigation, yet it was only released after the appointment of France’s Finance Minister Christine Lagarde as Managing Director of the IMF.

Lagarde’s candidacy was confirmed and accepted on June 26th. Her mandate was confirmed on June 28th following a decision of the IMF’s 24 member executive board.

Lagarde is an appointee of Wall Street and the US banking establishment. Her candidacy had been approved by U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner on the 28th of June:

“I am pleased to announce our decision to support Christine Lagarde to head the IMF,” Geithner said in a statement hours before the 24-member IMF executive board was expected to select her as its managing director.

Careful timing. In a bitter irony, the report from the prosecutor proving DSK’s innocence was released on the day following the IMF’s executive board decision instating Lagarde as Managing Director of IMF for a five year term.

The frame-up has visibly succeeded. Who instructed prosecutors not to release this information until after the appointment of Lagarde as IMF Chief?

If this information had been revealed a few days earlier, Lagarde’s candidacy as IMF chief might have been questioned.

Regime change at the IMF has been speedily implemented, not to mention the implications of the DSK affair in relation to the French presidential elections.

Christine Lagarde commenced her five year term as IMF Managing Director on July 5th at the height of Greece’s debt crisis.

Sofar, the likely hypothesis of a frame-up directed against DSK is not being touched upon by the mainstream media.

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Former Head of IMF Dominique Strauss-Kahn accuses Vladimir Putin of Being Part of a Plot to Have him Fired from his Post

Posted by Admin on May 24, 2011

Global Research, May 23, 2011

The former chief of the International Monetary Fund, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, has reportedly accused the Russian prime minister, Vladimir Putin, of being part of a plot to have him fired from his post.

­The British Daily Mail newspaper has claimed that before his arrest on sexual abuse charges, Strauss-Kahn voiced concerns that he could fall victim to a conspiracy.

In an interview with a French TV channel, Strauss-Kahn’s colleague, Claude Bartolone, said the ex-IMF chief told him that Russia and France were trying to stop him running for the French presidency.

“He had to watch out and be careful. They could have tapped the phone. He said the Russians, and notably Putin had allied themselves with France to try to have him fired from the IMF, to stop him running for the presidency. He said that by not leaving the IMF ‘cleanly’ he would no longer be able to announce his candidacy,” Bartolone told BFMTV on April 29.

Vladimir Putin’s press secretary, Dmitry Peskov, has called the accusations entirely baseless.

“I’ve been secretary to Prime Minister Putin for the last three years and I’ve never heard such weird, such crazy, allegations that simply don’t have any sense in the background,” he stressed.

Peskov added that Bartolone’s confession had failed to become big news in France and now after one British had paper picked it up, he doesn’t believe that the story will have any continuation because “it’s something that has nothing to do even with a sense of humor.”

Dominique Strauss-Kahn is currently awaiting trial in New York.

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Regime Change at the IMF: The Frame-Up of Dominique Strauss-Kahn?

Posted by Admin on May 24, 2011

by Prof. Michel Chossudovsky

Global Research, May 19, 2011

[Forward this article on Facebook or twitter, click above. This article is available in several foreign languages,Chinese ]

The arrest of IMF Managing Director Dominique Strauss-Kahn has all the appearances of a frame-up ordered by powerful members of the financial establishment, in liaison with France’s Nicolas Sarkozy, whose presidency has served the interests of the US at the expense of those of France and the European Union. While there is for the moment no proof of a plot, the unusual circumstances of his arrest and imprisonment require careful examination.

Immediately following Strauss Kahn’s arrest, pressures were exerted by Washington to speed up his replacement as Managing Director of the IMF preferably by a non-European, an American or a handpicked candidate from an “emerging market economy” or a developing country.

Since the founding of the Bretton Woods institutions in 1945, the World Bank has been headed by an American whereas the IMF has been under the helm of a (Western) European.

Strauss-Kahn is a member of elite groups who meet behind closed doors. He belongs to the Bildeberger. Categorized as one of the world’s most influential persons, he is an academic and politician rather than a banker. In contrast to his predecessors at the IMF, he has no direct affiliation to a banking or financial institution.

But at the same time he is the fall guy. His “gaffe” was to confront the Washington-Wall Street Consensus and push for reforms within the IMF, which challenged America’s overriding role within the organization.

The demise of Strauss-Kahn potentially serves to strengthen the hegemony of the US and its control over the IMF at the expense of what former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld called “Old Europe”.

Blocking Strauss-Kahn, the Presidential Candidate

In recent years, a major shift has occurred in Europe’s political landscape. Pro-American governments have been elected in both France and Germany. Social Democracy has been weakened.

Franco-American relations have been redefined, with Washington playing a significant role in grooming a new generation of European politicians.

The presidency of Nicolas Sarkozy has, in many regards, become a de facto US “client regime”, broadly supportive of US corporate interests in the EU and closely aligned with US foreign policy.

There are two overlapping and interrelated issues in the DSK frame-up hypothesis.

The first pertains to regime change at the IMF, the second to Strauss-Kahn as a candidate in France’s forthcoming presidential elections.

Both these processes are tied into the clash between competing US and European economic interests including control over the euro-currency system.

Strauss-Khan as a favorite of the Socialist Party, would have won the presidential elections leading to the demise of “Our Man in Paris” Nicolas Sarkozy. As documented by Thierry Meyssan, the CIA played a central undercover role in destabilizing the Gaullist party and supporting the election of Nicolas Sarkozy (See Operation Sarkozy: How the CIA placed one of its agents at the presidency of the French Republic, Reseau Voltaire, September 4, 2008)

A Strauss-Kahn presidency and a “Socialist” government would have been a serious setback for Washington, contributing to a major shift in Franco-American relations.

It would have contributed to weakening Washington’s role on the European political chessboard, leading to a shift in the balance of power between America and “Old Europe” (namely the Franco-German alliance).

It would have had repercussions on the internal structure of the Atlantic Alliance and the hegemonic role of the US within NATO.

The Eurozone monetary system as well as Wall Street’s resolve to exert a decisive influence on the European monetary architecture are also at stake.

The Frame-Up?

Fifty-seven percent of France’s population, according to a May 17 poll, believe that Strauss-Kahn was framed, victim of a set-up. He was detained on alleged sexual assault and rape charges based on scanty evidence. He was detained based on a complaint filed by the Sofitel hotel where he was staying, on behalf of the alleged victim, an unnamed hotel chamber-maid:

The 32-year-old maid told authorities that she entered his suite early Saturday afternoon and he attacked her, New York Police Department spokesman Paul J. Browne. She said she had been told to clean the spacious $3,000-a-night suite, which she thought was empty.

According to an account the woman provided to police, Strauss-Kahn emerged from the bathroom naked, chased her down a hallway and pulled her into a bedroom, where he began to sexually assault her. She said she fought him off, then he dragged her into the bathroom, where he forced her to perform oral sex on him and tried to remove her underwear. The woman was able to break free again and escaped the room and told hotel staff what had happened, authorities said. They called police.

http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/business/7565485.html#ixzz1MfFWFlnY

Wednesday CFR.org Roundup: U.S. pressures Strauss-Kahn to resign

Challenging the Washington Consensus

What is at stake in the immediate wake of Strauss Kahn’s demise is “regime change” at the IMF.

The Obama administration has demanded his replacement by a more compliant individual. U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, former CEO of the New York Federal Reserve Bank is pushing for the replacement of Dominique Strauss-Kahn, “suggesting he can no longer perform his duties” as IMF Managing director.

“Geithner called for greater formal recognition by the IMF board that John Lipsky, the fund’s second-in-command, will continue serving as temporary managing director for an interim period. Although Strauss-Kahn has yet to resign, sources say the IMF is in touch with his legal counsel to discuss his future at the organization.”

What lies behind the frame-up scenario? What powerful interests are involved? Geithner had a close personal relationship with Strauss-Kahn.

On the floor of the US Senate (May 18), Senator Mark Kirk of Illinois, called for the resignation of DSK while calling upon the IMF’s deputy managing director John Lipsky to “assume full responsibility of the IMF” as interim managing director. The process of “permanent replacement should “commence at once,” he said. John Lipsky is a well connected Wall Street banker, a former Vice Chairman at JPMorgan Investment Bank.

While the IMF is in theory an intergovernmental organization, it has historically been controlled by Wall Street and the US Treasury. The IMF’s “bitter economic medicine”, the so-called Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), imposed on countless developing countries, essentially serves the interests of creditor banks and multinational corporations.

The IMF is not the main architect of these devastating economic reforms which have served to impoverish millions of people, while creating a “favorable environment” for foreign investors in Third World  low wage economies.

The creditor banks call the shots. The IMF is a bureaucratic entity. Its role is to implement and enforce those economic policies on behalf of dominant economic interests.

Strauss Kahn’s proposed reforms while providing a “human face” to the IMF did not constitute a shift in direction. They were formulated within the realm of neoliberalism. They modified but they did not undermine the central role of IMF “economic medicine”. The socially devastating impacts of IMF “shock treatment” under Strauss-Kahn’s leadership have largely prevailed.

Dominique Strauss Kahn arrived at the helm of the IMF in November 2007, less than a year prior to September-October 2008 financial meltdown on Wall Street. The structural adjustment program (SAP) was not modified. Under DSK, IMF “shock treatment” which historically had been limited to developing countries was  imposed on Greece, Ireland and Portugal.

Under the helm of DSK as Managing Director, the IMF demanded that developing countries remove food and fuel subsidies at a time of rising commodity prices on the New York and Chicago Mercantile exchanges.

The hikes in food and fuel prices, which preceded the September-October 2008 Wall Street crash, were in large part the result of market manipulation. Grain prices were boosted artificially by large scale speculative operations. Instead of taming the speculators and containing the rise in food and fuel prices, the IMF’s role was to ensure that the governments of indebted developing countries would not in any way interfere in the “free market”, by preventing these prices from going up.

These hikes in food prices, which are the result of outright manipulation (rather than scarcity) have served to impoverish people Worldwide. The surge in food prices constitutes a new phase of the process of global impoverishment.

DSK was complicit in this process of market manipulation. The removal of food and fuel subsidies in Tunisia and Egypt had been demanded by the IMF. Food and fuel prices skyrocketed, people were impoverished, paving the way towards the January 2011 social protest movement:

Fiscal prudence remains an overarching priority for the [Tunisian] authorities, who also see the need for maintaining a supportive fiscal policy in 2010 in the current international environment. Efforts in the last decade to bring down the public debt ratio significantly should not be jeopardized by a too lax fiscal policy. The authorities are committed to firmly control current expenditure, including subsidies,… (IMF Tunisia: 2010 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Tunisia)

“[The IMF] encouraged the [Egyptian] authorities to press further with food and fuel subsidy reforms, and welcomed their intention to improve the efficiency and targeting of food subsidy programs. [meaning the selective elimination of food subsidies].

“Consideration should be given to introducing automatic adjustment mechanisms for domestic fuel prices to minimize distortions [meaning dramatic increases in fuel prices without State interference], while strengthening cash-based social programs to protect vulnerable groups. (IMF Executive Board Concludes 2008 Article IV Consultation with the Arab Republic of Egypt Public Information Notice, PIN  No. 09/04, January 15, 2009)

Under the helm of DSK, the IMF also imposed sweeping austerity measures on Egypt in 2008, while supporting Hosni Mubarak’s “efforts to broaden the privatization program”.(Ibid)

The Frank G. Wisner Nicolas Sarkozy Connection 

Strauss-Kahn was refused bail by Judge Melissa Jackson, an appointee and protégé of Michael Bloomberg, who in addition to his role as Mayor is a powerful figure on Wall Street.

Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance Jr. charged (using scanty evidence) Strauss-Kahn “with seven crimes, including attempted rape, sexual abuse, forcible touching and unlawful imprisonment”.

Who is Cyrus Vance Jr.?

He is the son of the late Cyrus Vance who served as Secretary of State in the Carter administration.

But there is more than meets the eye. Nicolas Sarkozy’s step father Frank G. Wisner II, a prominent CIA official who married his step mother Christine de Ganay in 1977 served as Deputy Executive Secretary of State under the helm of Cyrus Vance Senior, father of District Attorney Cyrus Vance Junior.

Is it relevant?

The Vance and Wisner families had close personal ties. In turn Nicolas Sarkozy had close family ties with his step father Frank Wisner (and his half brothers and sisters in the US and one member of the Wisner family was involved in Sarkozy’s election campaign).

It is also worth noting that Frank G. Wisner II was the son of one of America’s most notorious spies, the late Frank Gardiner Wisner (1909- 1965), the mastermind behind the CIA sponsored coup which toppled the government of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran in 1953. Wisner Jr. is also trustee of the Rockefeller Brothers Trust.

While these various personal ties do not prove that Strauss-Kahn was the object of a set-up, the matter of Sarkozy’s ties to the CIA via his step father, not to mention the ties of Frank G. Wisner II to the Cyrus Vance family are certainly worth investigating. Frank G, Wisner also played a key role as Obama’s special intelligence envoy to Egypt at the height of the January 2011 protest movement.

Did the CIA play a role?

Was Strauss-Kahn framed by people in his immediate political entourage including President Obama and Secretary of the Treasury Tim Geithner?

District Attorney Cyrus Vance Junior, son of the late Cyrus Vance, Secretary of State in the Carter administration

Sarkozy’s Step Father Frank G Wisner II, Deputy Executive Secretary of State (1976-79)
under Cyrus Vance Senior during the Carter administration

In this courtroom drawing, Dominique Strauss-Khan, centre, stands next to his lawyer Benjamin Brafman, in front of Criminal Court Judge Melissa Jackson during his arraignment at the Manhattan Criminal Court for the alleged attack on a maid at his penthouse suite of a hotel in New York. Photo: AP

In this courtroom drawing, Dominique Strauss-Khan, next to his lawyer 

Benjamin Brafman, in front of Criminal Court Judge Melissa Jackson during his arraignment at the Manhattan Criminal Court (AP)

File:Strauss-Kahn, Geithner (IMF 2009).jpg

DSK and Timothy Geithner

DSK and Timothy Geithner


Fair Trial?

Innocent before proven guilty? The US media has already cast its verdict. Will the court procedures be manipulated?

One would expect that Strauss-Kahn be granted a fair trial, namely the same treatment as that granted to thousands of arrests on alleged sexual aggression charges in New York City.

How many similar or comparable alleged sexual aggressions occur on a monthly basis in New York City?  What is the underlying pattern? How many of these are reported to the police?  How many are the object of police follow-up once a complaint has been filed?

What is the percent of complaints submitted to police which are the object of police arrest? How many of these arrests lead to a judicial procedure? What are the delays in court procedures?

How many of these arrests lead to release without a judicial procedure?

How many of the cases submitted to a judicial procedure are dismissed by the presiding judge?

How many of the cases which are not dismissed are refused bail outright by the presiding judge? What is the basis for refusing bail?

How many are granted bail?  What is the average amount of bail?

How many are imprisoned without bail based on scanty and incomplete evidence?

How many of those who are refused bail are sent to an infamous maximum security prison on Rikers Island on the orders of  Michael Bloomberg.

Diplomatic Immunity

Press reports state that full diplomatic immunity does not apply to officials of the United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions, namely that the US did not ratify the protocol.

“U.N. convention on privileges and immunities for international agencies that most countries have ratified. It gives the heads of U.N. agencies broad immunity in the countries where they are based. But the U.S. government never became a party to that treaty. Employees of international agencies are covered by a U.S. statute that gives only limited immunity.”

The relevant question is how has this limited immunity provision been applied in practice?  Namely how many people with limited immunity (UN officials, officials of the Bretton Woods institutions) have been arrested and sent to a high security prison?

Has Strauss Kahn been given the same treatment as those arrested under the provisions of “limited immunity”?

Does the Strauss Kahn arrest fit the pattern? Or is Strauss Kahn being treated in a way which does not correspond to the normal (average) pattern of police and judicial procedures applied in the numerous cases of persons arrested on alleged sexual assault charges?

Without a frame-up instrumented by very powerful people acting in the background, the head of the IMF would have been treated in an entirely different way. The mayor of New York Michael Bloomberg and Timothy Geithner would have come to his rescue.  The matter would have been hushed up with a view to protecting the reputation of a powerful public figure. But that did not happen.


Rikers Island Prison where DSK was imprisoned.

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DEMOCRACY IN 19TH CENTURY WESTERN EUROPE

Posted by Admin on January 30, 2011

“How democratic were France, Germany and Britain by 1900?”

Table of contents:

Part I: Summary;

Part II: Outline;

Part III: Limitation of this study;

Part IV: Democracy in France;

Part V: Democracy in Germany;

Part VI: Democracy in Britain;

Part VII: Conclusion.

Part I:

Summary: Just over a century ago, the kind of government that existed in these frontline western European states was a far cry from what is seen today. The political earthquake called the French Revolution had its epicentre in France, but its rumblings were felt through most of the continent, as well as in faraway colonies, leaving the politics of most European countries in a state of flux. But the intended harvest of this revolution, an obliteration of monarchy and the rule of law, the indispensable elements of a democracy, took its time to get ingrained in the political systems of these countries, and evolved as a form of government very differently in each of the three countries taken up in this paper. If the advent of Napoleon affected these three countries, and the Vienna Congress stunted France and Germany’s graduation to democracy, the internal political dynamics in all these countries were different from each other’s. In Britain, whose brand of democracy was mixed, the Reform Acts turned out to be milestones on the road to democracy. Such serious and well-intended steps to democracy were not taken in the other two countries. This is mainly because France kept seesawing between monarchy and autocracy through most of the 19th century, while Germany was a disparate state for most of that century. In sum, in Britain, by the end of the 19th century, a parliamentary democracy, which the nation had been having for a long time, was fairly well established, although under a monarchy. The same was not the case with the other two; in all, Germany enjoyed the least democracy. The reasons for this discrepancy form the backbone of this paper.

Part II:

Outline: This paper takes up separately the extent to which democracy was ushered in into these three countries. In each of these cases, a narration is made of how democracy developed. Since the nature of this paper is analytical, too much detail is not made of this aspect; this explanation is given only to reinforce the thesis question. The starting point for the evolution of democracy in each of these countries is taken up separately. This is for the simple reason that while the French Revolution happened in France, such an event did not take place in the other two countries. For these, appropriate historically important dates or events are taken up.

Part III:

Limitation of this study: While 1789 may be termed a signal event for modern democracy, no event of such importance concerning democracy happened in 1900, the cut off date for this paper. However, since this is the period up to which this paper is concerned, it restricts itself to developments in most parts of the 19th century, in which the major themes were unification for Germany, political uncertainty for France, and the reform of the parliamentary system in the Victorian Era for Britain.

Part IV:

Democracy in France:

France was home to one of the watershed political events of modern Europe, the French Revolution, in which the people rose in revolt with the slogan, war to the châteaux, peace to the cottages. The gravity and repercussions of this event are far too great to bear banal repetition; however, while the essential aim of the Revolution was to bring an end to the autocratic and inept regimes that misruled the nation, (Frey & Frey, 2004, p. 57) the result it sought to instil, democracy, did not have a smooth inception or development, either, suffering from several long and enduring birth pangs.

Strangely, for most part of the 19th century, it seemed as if the great revolution had turned out to be no more than an isolated, standalone event. The dividend the Revolution sought to pay, democracy, had to wait for a seemingly interminable period of time to fructify and get implanted in the nation’s political system, because the succession of governments it brought were anything but democratic. Leading political figures of the day, such as Robespierre feared that the system the revolution put in place was one which had a penchant for forgetting “the interests of the people”, would “lapse into the hands of corrupt individuals”, and worst of all, “reestablish the old tyranny” (Cohen, 1997, p. 130) Later decades showed that his prognosis was not far off the mark.

The decades following the Revolution saw a chain of events, none of which took the country anywhere near democracy, the avowed aim of the Revolution. The years from the Revolution to the Franco-Prussian War saw political fissures of one or another kind, which had no semblance of democracy, starting with the ascent of Napoleon, perhaps the most powerful dictator the country had ever produced. His defeat was followed by the Restoration of the monarchy; this gave rise to the Revolution of 1830, and the rule of Louis Philippe, till 1848. It took another revolution to bring down his regime, this time in 1848. Finally, this heralded the era of the Second Republic, and the tenure of the fickle Napoleon III, leading to another event of seminal importance for the nation, the Franco-Prussian war, to be followed by yet another Republic, the Third. (Haine, 2000, p. 97) This regime, too heavily weighed down by palace intrigues, scandals, wars and renewed national pride in the wake of a highly recharged and resurgent neighbour, Prussia, (Wright, 1916, pp. 2-4) was left with little room or time for democracy. Nothing of import happened in the period till the end of the 19th century to necessitate the emergence of a democracy.

Part V:

Democracy in Germany:

Germany’s tryst with democracy in the 19th century needs to be seen in circumstances that were peculiar and unique to the nation’s history. This was when the German people united as a nation for the first time.  They had been a loosely knit confederation of princely states that owed its allegiance to the Holy Roman Empire by the time of the French Revolution; yet, in about a century of this event, they had been cobbled together almost magically under the Prussian banner. A series of moves replete with uninhibited daredevilry, gamble, deceit and sheer diplomatic astuteness on the part of its Chancellor, Otto Von Bismarck had united the German people, ridding them of the yoke of Austrian domination of its peoples. (Snell, 1976, pp. 3, 4) However, Germany had only been united, resulting in the realisation of a long-lasting and cherished dream of a German nation; this did not in any way mean that a democracy had been put in place. The arrangements the Congress of Vienna made for Europe in 1815 undid Bismarck’s work, setting the clock back on democracy. Even so, the newly-knit entity did not have the prerequisite groundwork for democracy, suffering from a basic flaw –it “was constructed by its princes, not by its people. That important fact distinguished Germany from nations like England, France, and the United States, where the constitutions were designed “with the consent of the governed.” The German Empire was a federation of sovereign states, its constitution created by a treaty among the hereditary rulers of those states. The “wars of unification” were not revolutionary popular movements; they were narrowly focused international conflicts designed by Bismarck to help Prussia eliminate Austrian power within Germany and to create a new Prussian-led German nation within Europe.”  (Turk, 1999, pp. xvii-null22) Whatever spattering of democracy the nation had towards the fag end of the century was limited to social democracy, in which it was confined to labour unions. (Berghahn, 1994, p. 160)

Part VI:

Democracy in Britain: The year 1815 is considered a benchmark for the politics of Britain, as it was for several other European countries, for the simple reason that this year saw the end of the power and influence of one of the greatest nemeses it ever saw, Napoleon. However, while this was the major issue for the nation externally, Britain had its share of internal problems, as well, during this century. The Industrial Revolution brought in its wake dramatic changes which the nation had to ingest, with both the promises and the pitfalls it spawned. Among the most important social effects the Industrial Revolution had on the nation was a near-explosion in population, and the drawbacks of nascent industrialisation, at which it had no forerunners from any part of the world. Thus, the greatest priority at that time was a set of policies that gave the country social solidity and some element of peace. (McCord, 1991, p. 1) With the high rates of population growth and their attendant problems such as high infant mortality being great priorities during the early part of the 19th century, (Brown, 1991, p. 30) the air of politics was abuzz with the question of which of the institutions the British had so assiduously built up over the previous centuries was best suited to give coherence to the society that was changing at a feverish pace. In this milieu, the emphasis for British politics was more over what kind of reform was suited and needed for the society, polity and the economy, rather than which form of government was best suited to carry these changes out. Opinion was sharply divided among the Conservatives and the Liberals about which of its institutions could carry the day for Britain. The unshakable British faith in the monarchy was as firm as ever, not diluting or eroding even slightly on account of these changes. (Park, 1950, pp. 3-5) In essence, the 19th century, during whose most part Britain was under the rule of one of its longest-reigning monarchs, Queen Victoria, saw the emergence of a peculiarly hybridised, yet often contradictory system of governance. Quintessential democratic institutions, such as the parliament, the judiciary, the cabinet and the local government were alive and well, but functioned under a monarchy. On the one hand, fair and free elections, the ultimate identifier of a democracy, were being held with amazing regularity; on the other, it could not be denied that participation in these elections was limited to the handful of rich and powerful. It was to correct this set of imbalances and to draw more people into the electorate that the Reform Acts were passed. The basic intent of these sets of legislation was the promotion of greater democracy, by drawing the excluded and marginalised sections of society into the electorate. (Pugh, 1999, p. 20) The nation went through three Reform Acts, passed in 1832, 1867 and 1884, whose central aim was increasing the numbers of the electorate. (Hammond & Foot, 1952, pp. 212-214) At about the time these Acts were passed, a parallel social and political reform movement, Chartism, was very active. The basic demand of this radical, unionised movement was greater political participation for the working classes, so that the fruits of the Industrial Revolution percolated down to the labour class, too. (Maccoby, 1935, p. 33) However, in the light of the needs of the day, and the priority these Acts had, they met with little success in actually bringing in democracy to the country. What has been said about the Reform Act of 1832, perhaps holds good for the other Acts, too –that they were “…an excellent example of the British skill of muddling through. An aristocracy muddled through to a democracy, taking many of the aristocratic virtues with them; and they muddled through from an age of privilege to an age of numbers. The democratic implications of the act(s) were not in fact revealed for more than a generation…” (Smellie, 1962, p. 164) As a result, through most of the Victorian Era, although efforts were made haltingly towards bringing in more democracy, there was no more than a sprinkling of democracy; even this happened at the grassroots level, being restricted to the municipal level, as a series of Acts were passed at the local government level. (Harrison, 1996, p. 20)

Part VII:

Conclusion: A study of the thesis question throws up a mixed picture. Overall, democracy, so essential a feature of these countries today, had had to make a bumpy and potholed journey. In all these countries, democracy was nebulous and uncertain in the 19th century, albeit in varying degrees. In Britain, a parliamentary democracy was very much in full bloom, but the inherent love and pride of the British people for their monarchy pre-empted a switch to a full-fledged democratic form of government. As a result, these democratic institutions functioned under a monarchy that controlled the largest empire of the day.

In France, the scene was different. In the absence of democratic institutions of the kind Britain had nurtured, the governance the French Revolution brought about vacillated between various kinds, with the result that democracy took a backseat.

In Germany, the struggles inherent in a newly unified nation, coupled with its naivety in running its newly developing imperialism resulted in too many squabbles and bottlenecks for democracy. The nation that Bismarck had welded together had the ingenuity to only work under a newly consolidated empire, not having been inculcated the necessary mindset for a democracy. It was never going to be easy for these fissiparous peoples to be administered a sudden dose of democracy, as by definition they had been inured to centuries of localism. By the end of that century, democracy was nowhere registered in the average German psyche.

Of all these nations taken up for this study, it can be said that Britain had the highest form of democracy by the end of the 19th century; yet, here too, despite the Reform Acts, which could not be termed a great harbinger of democracy, it was nowhere near what may be termed a pure democracy, something that came so naturally to some of its colonies, principally America.

Written By Ravindra G Rao

 

References

 

Berghahn, V. R., (1994), Imperial Germany, 1871-1914: Economy, Society, Culture, and Politics, Berghahn Books, Providence, RI.

 

Brown, R., (1991), Society and Economy in Modern Britain, 1700-1850, Routledge, New York.

Cohen, P. M., (1997), Freedom’s Moment: An Essay on the French Idea of Liberty from Rousseau to Foucault, University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Frey, L. S., & Frey, M. L. (2004). The French Revolution /, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

 

Haine, W. S., (2000), The History of France (F. W. Thackeray & J. E. Findling, Ed.), Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

 

Hammond, J. L., & Foot, M. R., (1952), Gladstone and Liberalism, English Universities Press, London.

 

Harrison, B., (1996), The Transformation of British Politics, 1860-1995, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

Maccoby, S., (1935), English Radicalism, Allen & Unwin, London.

 

McCord, N., (1991), British History, 1815-1906, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

Park, J. H., (1950), British Prime Ministers of the Nineteenth Century, New York University Press, New York.

 

Pugh, M., (1999), State and Society: A Social and Political History of Britain, 1870-1997, Arnold, London.

 

Smellie, K. B., (1962), Great Britain since 1688: A Modern Histor, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.

 

Snell, J. L., (1976), The Democratic Movement in Germany, 1789-1914 (H. A. Schmitt, Ed.), University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.

Turk, E. L., (1999), The History of Germany, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

 

Wright, C. H., (1916), A History of the Third French Republic, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

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SOCIAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF SAME SEX MARRIAGES

Posted by Admin on January 30, 2011

Introduction: This paper is a presentation of the social and legal aspects of same-sex marriages. Although debates about this institution are strongly centered round legal aspects, this paper does not turn out to be a purely legal one. It looks at the system from the standpoint of society’s attitudes towards it, listing some of the arguments in favor of and against this system. Occasionally, the physical or sexual aspect of same sex marriages is sprinkled in the paper.

Limitations of this paper: One limitation of this paper is that it looks at the issue predominantly from the Western perspective. Although homosexuality, even if it is not solemnized by legal protection in most cases to be called same sex marriages, is universal, this paper restricts itself almost purely to the situation of same sex marriages as it exists in the West, in which too, most of the issues are from an American viewpoint. Secondly, this paper does not make a compartmentalization of social, moral, religious and legal issues concerning same sex marriages, instead looking at the issue of mixed marriages as a blend of these factors. Finally, in the concluding section, in which a prognosis is made of the issue, no claim is made that this is by any means an infallible one, whose certainty can be guaranteed. This forecast is at best a pointer made on the basis of very great variables, based on the way the issue has grown, which is liable to change at any time in unforeseeable altered circumstances.

Understanding same-sex marriages: In the simplest terms, same sex marriage, as the term indicates, is the marriage between individuals of the same sex. There is disagreement over whether this term is analogous to gay marriage, since some people can be homosexual, and could still be in a heterosexual marriage. Those who oppose the usage of the term ‘gay marriage’ do so because they would like the genealogy to include what are called ‘LGBT’, or lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender relationships. (Same-sex marriage)

History of same sex marriages: By whatever names they were called, unions between people of the same sex have existed since ancient times in almost all parts of the world; some prominent examples are those of Greece, in which an elderly man would cohabit with a younger male, in a manner strikingly similar to heterosexual practice. This often happened with the full consent of the family and the society. Acquiescing with an elderly man of considerable social standing was perhaps a way to climb the social or intellectual ladder. In ancient Rome, too, this practice is believed to have existed for centuries before the advent of Christianity. Once this religion was born, with its firm accent on marriage as a means for procreation, same sex relationships started to go underground, perhaps in view of the enormous influence the Church held over people’s daily lives. In the US, as late as the 19th century, there was a system in which two women would cohabit and make commitments to each other, in what was known as Boston Marriage. (Same-sex marriage)

Legal status of same sex marriages: Much of the debate on same sex marriages, though concerning the biological aspects, also focus much attention on the legal aspects, which make them as important a component as any other –biological, religious and moral.

The Netherlands became the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriages, in April 2001. This was followed by Belgium in 2003; Canada is in the process of legalizing it in stages. This was after the Canadian Supreme Court, in late 2004 brought same sex marriages within the ambit of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the legal document that guarantees human rights for all citizens; this ruling meant that same sex couples were in future not to be treated as separate and different. The situation in the world’s biggest democracy, the US, is different, with stiff opposition to the enactment of laws that legalize same sex marriages. Only one state, Massachusetts legalized same sex marriages. (Alderson) However, in September 2005, by a margin of 157-39, lawmakers rejected this earlier amendment, although this would not have retro effect, and would not apply to marriages until 2008. The rationale for this rejection was that it would lead to the growth of civil unions, and that only a marriage between a man and a woman is a proper marriage. (“Gay ‘Marriage’ Amendment Rejected;” A04)

Courts in the US have put forward various reasons for rejecting same sex marriages. In the first such case that came before it, two men, Richard Baker and James McConnell applied for a marriage license in Minnesota in 1970. The clerk rejected their application on the ground that they were both men, and that marriage license, according to the law at that time, could only be given to heterosexual people. The two went to court. The Trial Court upheld the clerk’s decision. When the two went on appeal, the Minnesota Supreme Court, too, affirmed this decision. The basis on which it upheld the lower court’s decision is interesting –it cited the same reason for which the clerk had denied permission, stating that marriage has always traditionally been a heterosexual institution, and that consenting to same sex marriages would be an anomaly. It is, in the words of the court, “a union of man and woman, uniquely involving the procreation and rearing of children.” (Hohengarten) Some states have the existence of what are called ‘civil unions’. By this term is meant a contract afforded to same sex couples to live together, short of marriage. Additionally, this legal term means that the same sex couples are not recognized as a married couple, and are not required to divorce each other to end the union, as in a marriage. (Alderson) Some of the rights civil marriages carry are social security, health insurance, taxation and inheritance. (Same-sex marriage) In the US, a landmark law came into effect in July 2000 in Vermont, by which civil unions were granted. This law states that “all the same benefits, protections and responsibilities under law, whether they derive from statute, administrative or court rule, policy, common law or any other source of civil law, as are granted to spouses in a marriage.” This was the last in a series of laws with the same intention –the earlier ones being judicial decisions to allow civil unions in Alaska and Hawaii. This, however, needs to be understood in the backdrop of stiff opposition to the issue –prior to this law, six states held referenda and 29 states legally barred same sex marriages. (Barclay, and Fisher) Today, in the US, it is estimated that there are between three and four million same sex parents that have adopted anywhere between six and 15 million children. (Bolte) Some of the factors that have fostered the enactment of laws supporting same sex marriages have been high urbanization, racial and ethnic diversity, greater influence of the Democratic Party, and reduced missionary activities. This of course, is not the rule, for there are notable exceptions to these contributing factors, the most prominent being, ironically, Vermont itself. (Barclay, and Fisher)

Debates concerning the issue: This section presents some of the arguments put forward by votaries and opponents of same sex marriages.

One of the strongest bases of support for same sex marriages is in the point of view that “they would serve comparable needs for intimacy and stability and they would entail comparable rights, duties, and liabilities in the various areas of law that impact family life. The only difference between them lies in the sex of the spouse, but this difference is simply immaterial–in all important, or essential respects that matter, the union is of the same sort.”  (West 261) The argument of those in favor of same sex marriages is that this is more important than the legal or biological or social factors; rather than marry someone simply because that person is of the opposite gender and suffer a loveless life, these advocates of this system ask if it is not wiser to marry some one they really love and care for, the only limiting factor being the gender of that person? (Wardle, Strasser, Duncan, and Coolidge 4) There is the argument that same sex marriages can never exist, since marriage is one that is a union between a male and female; hence, in this sense, the idea of same sex marriages is a kind of oxymoron, since same sex couples can never meet the most essential purpose of a marriage in the Judeo-Christian sense, procreation. Courts have traditionally held the view that marriage is untenable if it does not lead to procreation; seen in this sense, supporters of same sex marriages argue that even old people and sterile heterosexuals should be denied marriage. This argument, though, is defeated by the allusion to the point that with the advancement of science, it is possible for same sex couples also to have children. (Alderson)

The argument that children of same sex parents suffer ostracism and become objects of ridicule in society is countered by the fact that once these couples of civil unions separate, due legal protection is offered to the children. This protection is far superior to and more solid than what is offered to children of heterosexual parents, who are not obliged to provide financial support for their children. (Bolte)

People who support same sex marriages argue that they simply have no choice; homosexuality was what they were born with, and hence it is only same sex marriages that can consummate their feelings for each other. If they had the chance to take to homosexuality by choice, why should they take it, they ask, when the topic is still very much hushed up, and by and large, homosexuals are maligned and persecuted in most parts of the world. Their argument also runs into something like this –the true democracy is one that goes by the majority, but respects the sentiment of the minority. Hence, disallowing same sex marriages is a mark of double standards of governments that claim to be democratic, but practice persecution of the minority which does not count for votes. (Deshwar) The urge for love is deeply internal and personal; what is more important is to find emotional and mental stability in a relationship that is expected to last a long time; when this most important foundation of such a relationship, trust, is not to be found in the opposite sex, but in someone of the same sex, is it not sheer need that should drive these people towards a marriage? More importantly, they argue, the emotion of love, so central to a human being, is not monopolized in heterosexuals.  (Gomes)

Another argument in favor of same sex marriages is that the central element on which this relationship is built is friendship. Friendship, so very indispensable an element of happiness, is not bound or obliged to be only between those of opposite sexes. (Weeks, Heaphy, and Donovan 51) Further, there is the argument that any kind of activity that results in sexual gratification need not involve only what the majority accepts as acceptable behavior; if this is the logic of this argument, what about any kind of orgasmic pleasures, such as masturbation, in which only fantasy is involved, but is pleasurable nevertheless? If pleasure that is got by some kind of stimulation, illusory or real, is acceptable, why is pleasure that is derived by sexual activity with the same sex not? (Wardle, Strasser, Duncan, and Coolidge 97-100)

Those opposed to same sex marriages are equally vociferous in their arguments: they believe that same sex marriage is contrary to nature’s creation; they term homosexuality the height of deviant behavior comparable to some of the most heinous acts, and equate its very existence to promiscuity and sexual depravity. Another extremely important factor these opponents of same sex marriages put forward is that one of the prime functions of marriage is biological; when same sex marriages render this impossible, how can this be considered as any kind of marriage? (Wardle, Strasser, Duncan, and Coolidge 97-100)

Another argument put forward in opposition to same sex marriages is legalizing it runs contradictory to established law –while on the one hand, the government bans some sexual practices such as sodomy, legalization of same sex marriages would negate that, as this practice is accepted as common practice in same sex marriages, especially between two men. (Same-sex marriage)

Others are of the opinion that just allowing the status of same sex partners to remain what it is would be just sufficient. They argue, if all their expectations that they have from a same sex marriage are being met by a civil union, then why the clamor for legalized marriage? Is it not a redundant formalization of a relationship? (Herrick) There are counter arguments, too, to this belief: once the state recognizes by law the institution of same sex marriages, they make partners of these marriages eligible for the same benefits that other humans are entitled to. These laws would legally place same sex couples on an equal footing with other categories such as racial minorities, and preclude them from discrimination they face in substantial areas of life such as employment, housing, governmental benefits and so on. There is another extremely strong social component of legalizing same sex marriages –in religious beliefs, marriage is considered the ultimate crowning glory and the finest culmination of people who love and care for each other. Legalization is believed to be the state’s recognition of such a feeling in the same sex partners concerned.  (Barclay, and Fisher)

Conclusion: Same sex marriages have been on the rise in the last four decades or so. Pro-same sex marriage lobbies have articulated that these need to be treated on par with conventional marriages, since most of the parameters that apply to heterosexual marriages, such as love, caring, commitment, fidelity, promiscuity and so on apply to these marriages as well. They see it as the exercise of natural choice, and refute the procreation aspect by claiming that they can have offspring, too. Testimony to this claim is the fact that no less than a quarter of the estimated 600,000 same sex couples in the US have adopted children. They claim, with credibility, and backed up by facts, that when it comes to habitation, they go by the same set of conditions –they have the same commitment to their children as heterosexual people, live a life in which they cooperate with each other in all major aspects of life, pay taxes and contribute to society. All these would be given a greater impetus if they are legally allowed to live as couples. Another important consideration is that gay couples, too, need to be given the right to make important decisions about the partner, such as possible euthanasia in the event of incapacitation of one of the partners. (Pope)

In view of the developments taking place over the decades, and in view of the openness being generally witnessed in the West to same sex marriages, there is a likelihood that the day is not very far off when these marriages would be legalized. Another strong reason to believe that its legalization would happen sooner or later is that the West has a tradition of liberalism; the tradition that was the product of the Revolutions has touched virtually every aspect of life, and there is no reason to believe that only same sex marriages would be exempt from this sweep. In fact, it is a possibility all the more plausible considering that rights have been obtained, some easily and some after a struggle. It is rather anomalous that the US, which champions itself as the protector of rights and freedoms of all clans and cultures should still find it necessary to keep in place laws that are anachronistic to its liberalism-steeped attitude and philosophy.

Written By Ravindra G Rao

Works Cited

 

Alderson, Kevin G. “A Phenomenological Investigation of Same-Sex Marriage.” The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 13.2 (2004): 107+. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008460442>.

Barclay, Scott, and Shauna Fisher. “The States and the Differing Impetus for Divergent Paths on Same-Sex Marriage, 1990-2001.” Policy Studies Journal 31.3 (2003): 331+. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002028116>.

Bolte, Angela. “Do Wedding Dresses Come in Lavender? the Prospects and Implications of Same-Sex Marriage.” Social Theory and Practice 24.1 (1998): 111+. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001360867>.

Deshwar, Amit, 28 November 2005, <http://members.shaw.ca/amitdeshwar/samesex.html>

“Gay ‘Marriage’ Amendment Rejected; Massachusetts Lawmakers Shun Measure Opposed by Both Sides.” The Washington Times 15 Sept. 2005: A04. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011005871>.

Gomes, Charlene. “The Need for Full Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage.” The Humanist Sept.-Oct. 2003: 15+. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002552306>.

Herrick, Jim. “Same-Sex Marriage Moves Ahead.” Free Inquiry Aug.-Sept. 2004: 59+. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006690918>.

Hohengarten, William M. “Same-Sex Marriage and the Right of Privacy.” Yale Law Journal 103.6 (1994): 1495-1531. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001659660>.

Pope, Stephen J. “The Magisterium’s Arguments against “Same-Sex Marriage”: An Ethical Analysis and Critique.” Theological Studies 65.3 (2004): 530+. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008305877>.

Same-sex marriage, 28 November 2005, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same_sex_marriage#General>

Wardle, Lynn D., Mark Strasser, William C. Duncan, and David Orgon Coolidge, eds. Marriage and Same-Sex Unions : A Debate /.  Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102021283>.

Weeks, Jeffrey, Brian Heaphy, and Catherine Donovan. Same Sex Intimacies:  Families of Choice and Other Life Experiments. London: Routledge, 2001. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107607950>.

West, Robin. “20Gay Marriage and LiberalConstitutionalism: Two Mistakes.”  Debating Democracy’s Discontent: Essays on American Politics, Law, and Public Philosophy. Ed. Anita L. Allen and Milton C. Regan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. 260-269. Questia. 28 Nov. 2005 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49028871>.

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Saudis say al Qaeda targeting France: minister

Posted by Admin on October 19, 2010

http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20101017/ts_nm/us_france_terrorism;_ylt=AkN3rnFBr2jog9pb0YyimZ134T0D;_ylu=X3oDMTJwa29lODhvBGFzc2V0A25tLzIwMTAxMDE3L3VzX2ZyYW5jZV90ZXJyb3Jpc20EcG9zAzEyBHNlYwN5bl9hcnRpY2xlX3N1bW1hcnlfbGlzdARzbGsDc2F1ZGlzc2F5YWxx

PARIS (Reuters) – Interior Minister Brice Hortefeux said on Sunday that France had been warned by Saudi Arabia that al Qaeda was targeting Europe and especially France.

“Several hours or days ago, there was a new message from the Saudis that said al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula was without doubt active or planning to be active in Europe, especially France,” he told French radio RTL.

“This is not about overestimating the threat or underestimating it,” he said. “I am indicating, based on all these elements, that the threat is real.”

Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), an arm of al Qaeda thought to include Yemenis and Saudis, has stepped up attacks on Yemeni and Western targets since it claimed a failed U.S. airliner bombing in December.

Impoverished Yemen, which is struggling to end a civil war in the north and a separatist rebellion in the south, is trying with U.S. help to crush AQAP, which has been based in Yemen since 2006, when SaudiArabia mounted a counter-terrorism drive against its Saudi arm.

Hortefeux’s remarks indicated that the new warning was not connected with the heightened alert in France in late September based on a tip-off that a female suicide bomber was planning to attack its transport system.

police source told Reuters at that time that the information about the threatened attack had come from Algeria.

France has not suffered a major attack since 1995 when the Algerian Armed Islamic Group killed eight people and wounded dozens bombing a Paris metro station.

(Reporting by Thierry Leveque; writing by Nina Sovich; editing by Tim Pearce)

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