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Posts Tagged ‘germany’

Companies That Collaborated With Nazis

Posted by Admin on October 7, 2012

http://in.finance.yahoo.com/news/companies-collaborated-nazis-211837425.html

By Greg McFarlane | Investopedia – Wed 3 Oct, 2012 2:48 AM IST

For a brief period in the late 1930s and 1940s, Adolf Hitler managed to redefine and personify evil in a way that even ancient mass-murderers such as Tamerlane and Genghis Khan never aspired to. By virtue of Hitler taking complete control of the most powerful country on the European continent, practically every existing business entity in Germany thus became a de facto instrument of this new and tyrannical government. At that time, doing business in Germany meant supporting Hitler, so it’s not fair to frame all these businesses as enthusuastic Nazi collaborators. While some of these businesses exist and flourish today, it’s likely that millions of their customers have no idea of these companies’ past dealings with the Nazi party.

Bayer
It seems that almost any German multinational of a certain vintage can find a link to the Nazi regime. In some cases, that link is more direct than in others. Bayer was founded in Germany in 1863, and has been a household name in North America since not long after. Today, despite making everything from polymers to blood glucose monitors, Bayer remains most famous for being the company that first discovered (or more accurately, isolated) aspirin.

The most outrageous thing about Bayer’s connection to the Nazi regime is the timing. In 1956, Bayer welcomed a new chairman of the board: a second-generation chemist named Fritz ter Meer. Bayer’s directors must have liked what they saw in Fritz ter Meer, whose resume included the study of law, employment with his father’s company and three years in prison for war crimes.

It’s not as if ter Meer had been punished for, say, being ordered against his will to stand guard at Dachau. No, he helped plan Monowitz, a concentration camp better known as Auschwitz III. He also built the infamous Buna factory, where his colleagues conducted human experiments and forced slaves to build critical components for the Wehrmacht. Furthermore, Fritz ter Meer never denied his involvement, and he was sentenced to seven years in prison during the infamous Nuremburg Trials.

However, ter Meer served less than half of his sentence. Even then, having been subjected to a wrist slap from a light and fluffy pillow, ter Meer didn’t merely fall into obscurity. He not only held the highest executive position at Bayer, but also served on the boards of several other companies before retiring in the 1960s and dying of natural causes at the age of 83.

Siemens
Next time you’re in your garage, look at the brand names of the products you find. If you own a damping pin, turbo compressor or fluoroscope, there’s a good chance it carries the Siemens logo. The company is worth approximately $89 billion, employs roughly 370,000 people and claims to operate in about 190 countries.

When World War II became the major topic of concern for Germany, Siemens was there. The company forced slaves to manufacture components for the rockets that ended up raining down on London and Antwerp, Belgium in short order. In the early 21st century, Siemens began to pay reparations to the workers it had paid nary a pfennig to 55 years earlier.

IG Farben
For some of us of a certain age, BASF was the company that made cassette tapes. Another German multinational that’s been around since the 19th century, BASF is similar to Siemens in another way, in that it produces the unglamorous if vital things that make life better: engineering plastics, chemical coatings and polymers that their end users don’t even notice.

In 1925, BASF and a couple of partners formed an infamous conglomerate named IG Farben. One of the chemicals manufactured by the company at the time was Zyklon B, which was the gas used to suffocate untold millions of concentration camp prisoners during the Holocaust.

In 1951, when the victors partitioned Germany, the Western Allies restored IG Farben into its original components. Today, BASF continues to trade as one of the featured securities on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, with a market capitalization of over $60 billion.

The Bottom Line
In a world where Chick-Fil-A can face a boycott because of the religious views of its chairman, and British Petroleum can be the subject of virulent protests because of a tragic accident, it’s tough to imagine what form of consumer activism would be appropriate if the companies featured on this list were doing business today with hated regimes.

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Why Portugal May Be the Next Greece

Posted by Admin on May 22, 2012

http://business.time.com/2012/03/27/why-portugal-may-be-the-next-greece/

Why Portugal May Be the Next Greece

The worst is over for the euro zone, the experts say. But Greece isn’t really fixed and Portugal could become a second big problem before year-end

By Michael Sivy | @MFSivy | March 27, 2012

When Greece celebrated its Independence Day on Sunday, there were scattered protests over the harsh austerity program aimed at stabilizing the country’s finances. The government reportedly removed low-hanging fruit from bitter-orange trees along the parade route, so it couldn’t be thrown by protesters. But, basically, the most recent bailout appears to be successful. As a result, worries about the European financial crisis have diminished somewhat. Indeed, European Central Bank president Mario Draghi has said that the worst is over for the euro-currency zone.

Such optimism may be premature, however. Not only does Greece remain a long-term financial concern, but in addition Portugal is on track to become a second big problem.

The dangers Greece still poses are clear. Higher taxes and government-spending cuts may reduce new borrowing, but such austerity policies also undermine a country’s ability to pay the interest on its existing debt. Unless accompanied by progrowth policies, austerity can become the financial equivalent of a medieval doctor trying to cure patients by bleeding them. In addition, the bailout plan for Greece consisted of marking down the value of much of the country’s debt held by banks and other private lenders. That means entities such as the European Central Bank now hold most of Greece’s remaining debt. And so, in the event of a default, important international institutions would suffer the greatest damage.

(MORE: Is Germany’s Euro-Crisis Strategy Actually Working?)

The net result has been to postpone the Greek financial crisis for months or even a couple of years, while raising the stakes if things go wrong. That could be seen as a considerable achievement, if you believe Greece is a unique case and that the problem has been successfully contained. The trouble is that other countries — and especially Portugal — seem to be heading down the same path. Here’s why forecasters are worried:

Portuguese interest rates haven’t come down. Because of the Greek crisis, bond yields rose to dangerous levels in several financially troubled European countries. Then after Greece was bailed out, yields fell in most of them. In Italy, yields on bonds with maturities of around 10 years dropped from more than 7.2% to around 5%; in Spain, from 6.7% to 5.4%; and in Ireland, from 9.7% to 6.9%. The notable exception was Portugal, where bond yields came down a bit but still remain above 12%. Double-digit borrowing costs are impossible for a heavily indebted country to sustain for any significant period of time. Yet Portugal’s bond yields have been above 10% for the past nine months.

Portugal’s total debt is greater than that of Greece. In one way, Greece really is unique — the country’s massive debt is largely the result of borrowing by the government rather than by the private sector (corporations and households). By contrast, Portugal, Spain and Ireland have far more private-sector debt. As a result, while government debt in Portugal is less than that of Greece, relative to GDP, total debt (including private-sector debt) is actually greater.

(MORE: The Most Important Man in Europe)

The Portuguese economy is shrinking. Portugal’s economy has been weak ever since the financial crisis began in 2008, and the country has actually been in recession for more than a year. Moreover, last month the Portuguese government projected that the country’s economy would contract by 3.3% in 2012. As Portuguese companies struggle to pay off their own massive debt, it’s hard to imagine that they will be able to help pull the country out of recession.

Thanks to a bailout last year, Portugal has enough money to make it into 2013, despite brutally high interest rates and a shrinking economy. But the markets are unlikely to wait that long to go on red alert. In the case of Greece, bond yields topped 13% in April 2011, and by September they were above 20% and heading for 35%. Portuguese yields have been above 11.9% for the past four months and have topped 13% several times. If the country follows the same timeline as Greece, Portugal could suffer a serious financial crisis before the end of the year.

There are a number of reasons such an outcome would be serious, despite the relatively small size of Portugal’s economy. First, the European Union has been operating on the assumption that Greece is a unique case, a poor country suffering from rampant tax fraud and an unusually dysfunctional government bureaucracy. If another euro-zone country experiences similar problems — and they occur partly because of private-sector debt rather than government borrowing — then the flaws in the system start looking more general, and the stability of the entire euro zone is called into question.

(LIST: The 10 Most Memorable Ads Featuring Celebrities And Their Kin)

Moreover, much of the borrowing by Portuguese companies has been financed by Spanish banks. That creates the possibility of a domino effect, whereby a financial squeeze in Portugal leads to a crunch in the Spanish banking sector. Moreover, the debt structure in both Spain and Ireland — with large amounts of private-sector borrowing — is similar to that of Portugal. Germany and the Netherlands are already balking at making further loans to Greece. And although Northern European countries could afford to bail out Portugal, their resources are limited. If a second country goes the way of Greece, several more might well follow.

Since Europe’s problems seem to have receded for the moment, U.S. investors are understandably focused on other risks — like conflict with Iran that could sharply push up oil prices, or fights over taxes and the federal budget in the run-up to the elections. But the danger of a European financial crisis has not gone away — and the ultimate costs could run to more than half a trillion dollars.

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Hitler had son with French teen

Posted by Admin on February 18, 2012

http://in.news.yahoo.com/hitler-had-son-french-teen-171544378.html

By Indo Asian News Service | IANS India Private Limited – 19 hours ago

London, Feb 17 (IANS) Adolf Hitler had a son with a French teenager while serving as a soldier during the First World War, The Telegraph reported Friday.

Jean-Marie Loret, who died in 1985 aged 67, never met his father, but went on to fight Nazi forces during the Second World War.

His extraordinary story has now been backed up by a range of compelling evidence, both in France and in Germany, which is published in the latest edition of Paris’s Le Point magazine.

Hitler is said to have had an affair with Loret’s mother, Charlotte Lobjoie, 16, as he took a break from the trenches in June 1917.

Although he was fighting the French near Seboncourt, in the northern Picardy region, Hitler made his way to Fournes-in-Weppe, a small town west of Lille, for regular leave, where he met Lobjoie.

The pair started a brief relationship, which resulted in the birth of Jean-Marie, who was born in March 1918 after being conceived during a “tipsy” evening in June 1917.

Jean-Marie was, like thousands of other French children with German soldier fathers, badly treated by his peers at school.

He was referred to as “the son of the Bosh”, and often had fights as he tried to defend his father, who had by now disappeared over the border to Germany.

Lobjoie, meanwhile, refused to discuss Jean-Marie’s father, and ended up giving her only son away for adoption in the 1930s to a family called Loret.

Just before her death in the early 1950s, Lobjoie finally told Jean-Marie that his father was arguably the most infamous dictator in human history.

Loret said: “In order not to get depressed, I worked non-stop, never took a holiday, and had no hobbies. For twenty years I didn’t even go to the cinema.”

Hitler, who was born in an Austrian village, frequently spoke of his love for France, and especially for Paris.

Although he never officially had any sons or daughters of his own, Hitler often spoke of his love of children and animals.

He married his mistress, Eva Braun, as the Red Army shelled his bunker in Berlin, in 1945, and committed suicide shortly afterwards.

 

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German company removes objectionable yoga mats with images of Hindu deities

Posted by Admin on January 23, 2012

http://in.news.yahoo.com/german-company-removes-objectionable-yoga-mats-images-hindu-131310254.html

By ANI | ANI – 9 hours ago

Nevada (US), Jan 22 (ANI): Germany based firm Yogistar has reportedly withdrawn from its websiteyoga mats carrying the images of Hindu deities, which upset Hindus had called inappropriate and asked for immediate withdrawal.

Distinguished Hindu statesman Rajan Zed, in a statement in Nevada (USA) today, has thanked Yogistar for immediate action and for listening to the sentiments of about one billion strong worldwide Hindu community.

Zed, who is president of Universal Society of Hinduism, in a statement on this issue on January 19, had said that Hindu deities were meant to be worshipped in temples or home shrines and not to be trampled under one’s feet while doing yoga, as in some of Yogistar yoga mats.

Rajan Zed had argued that these deities were highly revered in Hinduism and inappropriate usage of Hindu deities or concepts for commercial or other agenda was not okay as it hurt the devotees.

Hinduism was the oldest and third largest religion of the world with about one billion adherents and a rich philosophical thought and it should not be taken lightly. Symbols of any faith, larger or smaller, should not be mishandled, Zed had stressed.

Some of the products shown on Yogistar website on January 19 that Hindu devotees would find inappropriate included yoga mats carrying images of Hindu deities Shiva, Lakshmi and Ganesha, which were classified as “Yogamatte Getter-Edition” with each carrying a price tag of 24.90 Euros (about 1623 Indian Rupees); and these were reportedly no longer seen on the website today.

Yogistar Vertriebs with tagline “designed fur yoga”, which sells online at “yogistar.com”, in addition to yoga mats also carries yoga related tops, pants, shirts, leggings, jerseys, CDs/DVDs/Videos, blocks, belts, bottles, bags, stools, T-shirts, books; besides malas, meditationshockers, meditation timers, netis, teas, ayurvedic kajals, meditation cushions, etc. Based in Wiggensbach (Germany) with contact information given in Wendelins (Germany) and branch in Switzerland, its Geschaftsfehrer (managing director) are listed as: Matthias Beck, Uwe Haardt. (ANI)

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Chapter 6, ET Human Mega-popupation (Draft)

Posted by Admin on December 24, 2011

Note: For those that are republishing this material I have yet to get permission to publish some of these works by others. Please remember this is only a rough draft and subject to much further editing and correcting. Also blogger messes up the format when I cut and paste.

Exopolitics Book: Chapter One
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/10/exopolitics-book-chapter-1-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter Two
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/10/exopolitics-book-chapter-2-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter 3
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/10/exopolitics-book-chapter-3-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter 4
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/10/exopolitics-book-chapter-four-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter 5
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/11/chapter-five-grays-draft.html

Exopolitics Book: Chapter 6
http://exopolitics.blogspot.com/2011/12/chapter-six-et-human-mega-popupation.html

CHAPTER SIX (Draft)
The Extraterrestrial Human Mega-population
By Ed Komarek

I think I should warn the reader if they have not already learned the lesson the hard way that the chances are very high that when they begin investigating extraterrestrial human contact cases they will be duped and defrauded by a swarm of false contactees and whistleblowers and their duped promoters. It’s become the rage in UFO/ET circles on the Internet since its creation, to create false narratives of contact for a number of reasons or a combination thereof.

Some people just want attention and feel important, some are mentally ill, others want to sell their false narratives built upon information they have acquired in the UFO/ET community as a book or movie script, others have psychological Messiah Complexes and advertise for cult followers, some are cult followers looking for a Messiah, some are even skeptics feeling superior and important out to hoax the believers for being so gullible. Seems like just about every major star or constellation has some false contactee claiming to be in contact with celestial beings originating from this or that star or constellation.

From what I have been able to tell with over 40 years of study is that extraterrestrial humans if they are ethically advanced communicate with people who are working very hard to move human evolution forward, or if less ethically advanced with people that they are monitoring, studying or experimenting upon. In both cases these contactees are very reluctant to become public, either because it will affect their credibility in everyday life, or because they fear the secret government involved in these matters.

If anybody with an open mind has any doubt about there being a vast cosmic mega-population of humans and humanoids with many species coming to earth and interacting with us and our environs, they have to go no further than the compilations of humanoid contact cases. Albert Rosales alone has compiled over 4000 humanoid cases since the 1940s and 291 humanoid cases for 1954 alone. Good grief!!!! Here are the first 20 cases out of the 291 for 1954 just to give the reader an idea of the scope of the evidence if they are unable to access this link. http://www.ufoinfo.com/humanoid/humanoid1954.shtml

Albert Rosales states: “1954 Humanoid Reports. The focus is France. The unprecedented and until possibly 1973, unduplicated wave of humanoid reports took place throughout France and some parts of Italy. Other reports came in from England, US, Germany, Canada & other European countries but at a much lesser extent. Towards the end of the year the focus seemed to shift to Venezuela & Brazil. Whatever the case, it was indeed a memorable year. Following is a list of known Humanoid reports for the year 1954.

One: Location. Near Cincinnati Ohio Date: 1954 Time: unknown – A reported landing of a silvery disc from which a tall human like occupant resembling the “Adamski” type beings, with long blond hair and wearing a sky blue coverall emerged. He reportedly walked to a nearby stream and obtained some water; he then went back into the object and took off. No other information. HC addition # 1008 Source: Michael D Swords, IUR Vol. 18 # 5, quoting Hunt-Williamson Files Type: B

Two: Location. Tenterden Kent England Date: 1954 Time: unknown – The witness was alone in her house when she encountered, standing in the passage on the landing in front of her, a man over six-foot tall. He wore a metallic blue siren type suit that was glimmering. She stood looking at the entity and he looked at her without a word being spoken. The entity had a very high forehead, a slit for a mouth, large eyes, and high cheekbones. He also had a large pointed chin and his eyes were deep blue in colour. He wore a very tight fitting helmet made out of a translucent material; his skin appeared to be pink. After a brief moment he suddenly vanished in plain sight. HC addition # 412 Source: Norman Oliver, UFO Magazine Vol. 11 # 5. Type: E

Three: Location. Nord (Northern) France (exact location not given) Date: 1954 Time: unknown – An anonymous witness reported seeing a disc-shaped object land and a small man come out of it. He was entirely covered in a dark tight-fitting diving suit, which did not allow distinguishing none of his features. The little man then communicated in French with the witness saying the following absurd sentences: “Intelligence is prohibited to the constipated and cancer comes from a tooth ache” The little man then walked back into the disc, which then took off and disappeared. HC addendum Source: Eric Zurcher quoting Aime Michel Type: B

Four: Location. Near Minyushino, Yaroslavl region, Russia Date: 1954 Time: unknown – A local resident reported seeing a flying object shaped like a “box or basket” flying towards the village of Staroye Merzleyevo. The object flew at a low altitude and emitted a muffled humming sound. The object then touched and tree and landed and two strange “men” of unusual appearance then exited the object. Both men seemed occupied in performing several tasks around the environs. After a few moments the two strangers returned to the object which then lifted up again and flew away. Local villagers, though simple people, noticed that the strange device was neither an airplane or a helicopter or an air balloon with basket, it was something they had heard or seen before. HC addendum Source: Vadim A. Chernobrov “Encyclopaedia of UFO visits” Moscow 2008 quoting Valeriy Kukushkin Type: B

Five: Location. Near Rushden England Date: 1954 Time: afternoon – An eight-year old boy was digging in his garden when he saw a strange oval shaped “cloud” and heard a voice giving him instructions. Apparently he has been involved in other encounters. No other information. HC addition # 3884 Source: Northamptonshire UFO Research Club Type: F

Six: Location. Queensland Australia, exact location not given Date: 1954 Time: afternoon – In an isolated farm area a man named Harry saw a being step out from behind a tree. The being wore a maroon tight fitting body suit with a broad belt. The entity was described as tall with long golden hair. No other information. HC addition # 2671 Source: Keith Basterfield Type: E

Seven: Location. South Pasadena California Date: 1954 Time: afternoon – The witness was out cutting wood in his yard when he saw a disc shaped object descend and hover about 20 feet from the ground. Three man-like figures descended to the ground by means of a ladder. The men approached the witness and attempted to communicate by using sign language. The witness reported that the three men apparently did not have any mouths, or were wearing some type of half faceplate or mask. HC addition # 1861 Source: George Hunt Williamson, Other Tongues Other Flesh Type: B

Eight: Location. Pantelleria, Sicily, Italy Date: 1954 Time: afternoon – A 14-year old boy, Giuseppe Gabriele was exploring the island on his motor scooter and was rounding a bend on the path when he saw four small human-like figures standing next to a landed disc-shaped craft, afraid, he rode away from the area and did not investigate. HC addendum Source: Antonio Blanco “Catalogo degli avvistamenti della Regione Sicilia” Type: C

Nine: Location. Bankstown New South Wales Australia Date: 1954 Time: just after dark – Two persons working late at the local airport observed what resembled a disc shaped object hovering above the control tower. Several lighted portholes could be seen and dark figures could be seen moving inside. The object changed colours then shot up into the air at great speed. HC addition # 1302 Source: Keith Basterfield Type: A

Ten: Location. Chelsea England Date: 1954 Time: evening – Air Marshal Sir Peter Horsley reported that a certain General Martin invited him to the apartment of a Mrs Markham. There he met an apparent extraterrestrial of humanoid appearance, pale, with penetrating eyes and not totally human, which called himself “Mr. Janus.” Fixing the Marshal with a steely gaze, the “alien” talked for hours about traveling in space and time. On a return visit, Horsley found the apartment empty. HC addition # 3023
Source: UFO-Mind Type: E

Eleven: Location. Near Madras, India Date: 1954 Time: evening – In a small village a disc-shaped object was seen landing on a field. Several human-like occupants exited the object and they approached a local woman and communicated with her and also walked to nearby several homes and communicated with its occupants. No other information. HC addendum Source: Denys Breysse Project Becassine Type: E

Twelve: Location. Wright City, Missouri Date: 1954 Time: evening – The witnesses were driving home on a gravel road heading east when one of them looked out the window and noticed something flying over them and observing them. It was just high enough that the driver could not see it. The witness could see human-like persons walking around inside the object which was lit up. They wore some type of uniform like clothing. There was no sound or exterior lights and the object was going roughly the same speed of that of the car. The car drove for about a mile or two and then turned left into an area that had a lot of trees and lost sight of the object. HC addendum Source: http://www.uforc.com/ufo_reports/ Type: A

Thirteen: Location. Near Terra Alta West Virginia Date: 1954 Time: night – The young witness was coming back from a visit to the outhouse when the family dog began whining and looking up to a nearby hill. The witness looked up and saw a large flat object with three yellow-lighted windows, hovering low above the hill. The object was emitting a humming noise. Suddenly a human face appeared on one of the windows and apparently looked at the witness. The object then moved slowly away and disappeared over the hill. HC addition # 1953 Source: Bob Teets, West Virginia UFOs, Close Encounters in the Mountain State Type: A

Fourteen: Location. Near Lancaster New York Date: 1954 Time: night – A couple living in a farm had been seeing mysterious manoeuvring lights over the area for several nights in a row, then one night as they were watching television in their living room a foggy white beam of light shot through one of the windows. They then noticed, looking in the window the face of a man who appeared to be of a dark complexion. He was estimated to have been only about four-foot tall, judging by the height of the window. The beam of light seemed to emanate from the entity’s face. The witnesses approached the window several times but each time they did the face would disappear. HC addition # 1864 Source: George Hunt Williamson, Other Tongues Other Flesh Type: E

Sixteen: Location. Saratov region, Russia Date: 1954 Time: unknown – Several (at least 2) UFOs were detected visually and on radars by the Soviet military. Objects flew over the secret missile and radar sites located in Saratov and Volgograd regions near the river Volga and towards the launch missile positions of “Kapustin Yar” state central test range # 4, one of the first Soviet missile test ranges.

According to military opinion “the flight appeared to be for reconnaissance purposes”. Three or four Mig-15 aircraft were immediately scrambled from Volsk airbase NE of Saratov with orders to force the UFOs to land. After several aggressive attempts to compel the UFOs to land, the Migs opened fire. Immediately after that the radio communication with the all the Migs was interrupted and the Migs did not return to their base. A search and rescue operation brought no results—no wreckage was found. The pilots were reported missing. Apparently the Migs were either totally destroyed or abducted by the UFOs. A state commission was created to investigate the case. A member of the commission, a Mr. Popov emphasized the similarity between the incident near Moscow in 1938 and this new case.

A classified report was submitted to the special military Soviet archive on UFOs which was created in 1955 almost a year after the incident. The Soviet Ministry of Defence kept a special archive on UFOs inside an underground bunker in a military garrison named Beryezovka-2 on Krasnyi Kut range in the Saratov region. The archive existed from 1955 to 1991. The archive was reportedly destroyed by orders from Moscow in 1991. HC addendum Source: Egveniy Valmer, retired officer in “Fourth Dimension and NLO” # 5 1999 and Victor A. Zdorov Type: G?

Sixteen: Location. Osceola, Iowa Date: 1954 Time: 2330 – Michael Kelly, a young pre-school child at the time remembered finding himself one late evening surrounded by “boy-scouts” escorting him to a field near his home. They were about his size in height and were wearing some kind of uniform. The witness still thinking they were “scouts” asked the little men why were they not wearing hats or caps and one of them responded that they didn’t wear hats. Once in the field he found himself in a circle of beaming lights that appeared solid in nature. He looked directly above him and saw a large disc-shaped object hovering silently overhead. The object had colourful lights on its outer rim. He asked the “scouts” what the object was and they told him it was a “helicopter”. He answered that it didn’t look like a helicopter and after that his mind went blank. The witness has been possibly involved in other strange events.
HC addendum Source: http://www.etcontact.net/newsite Type: C or G?

Seventeen: Location. Near March Field California Date: early 1954 Time: unknown – Several witnesses were passing by the airfield in a vehicle when they observed a shiny disc shaped craft resting on the ground. In order to get a closer look they exited their vehicle and approached the object. The craft was smooth and silvery and there appeared to be no one around the object. The witnesses then decided to get even closer to the object when suddenly a man appeared and stepped in front of them. He raised his arm and threw what appeared to be a fireball at them. The fireball passed by them and struck their vehicle. The witnesses immediately fled the area, driving to the nearest police station. The being was described as tall, man like and wearing some sort of half mask on his face, apparently metallic. The fireball reportedly dented the side of the vehicle and burned the paint. HC addition # 1860 Source: George Hunt Williamson, Other Tongues Other Flesh Type: C

Eighteen: Location. Near Acapulco Mexico Date: January 1954 Time: 0200A – While driving the winding roads that separate Mexico City from Acapulco, Armando Zurbaran only concern was arriving at the Pacific port city before sunrise, in order to meet a business partner. At some point during the drive, he was overcome by an almost hypnotic state of lethargy, which caused him to pull over. Not far ahead on the road, he was able to see a number of men clad in overalls with wide belts gathered around a strange, brilliantly lit object.

Before he realized, and having no idea how it happened, he was walking toward the object, escorted by the longhaired men. A slight buzzing sound filled his ears as he entered the saucer. Zurbaran was going down in history as his country’s first Contactee (how about Salvador Villanueva in 1953?) and this was his first question to the ship’s captain, “Why had he been chose for this honour?” “You are neither the first nor last earthman to be chosen for testing” his host replied. “Our task, slow though it may seem, is designed to persuade.

We choose the likeliest, most malleable persons for contact, so that they might better transmit our messages.” Zurbaran was then treated to a review of the smallest details of his life on a screen within the vehicle’s wall and a tour of the ship’s interior, guided by one of the fair, longhaired crewmen (reminiscent of Adamski’s visitors) who answered each of the puzzled human’s questions in detail. The space travellers, he learned, employed a gravity repulsion system to cover the distance between their home world and Earth, scanning the space ahead of them with a radar-like device to dispel any objects that may lie in their path.

Unlike other contactee stories of the time, Zurbaran’s visitors did not claim to originate from any planet in the Solar System, nor did they mention their planet of origin by name. The craft, he learned, had taken off while he was unaware and was now in space. Zurbaran peeked out a porthole, hoping for a glimpse of the world seen from above, but could only see a greyish mist until at a distance of 40,000 km, the ship’s captain pointed out the planet to him through another porthole. Excited by the vista, the human asked the captain if he could perhaps be taken to visit their world, but his request was turned down.

He was told that perhaps someday such an invitation would be tendered, at the right moment. Zurbaran was able to sleep a normal sleep and eat with the UFO’s crew. His description of taking a shower in space is particularly memorable, “I shall never be able to forget it. That bathroom was a new and unimaginable experience for me. Standing upright, facing an angle of the wall filled with tiny holes, I was covered in warm air, and as it grew stronger, it became transformed into damp air, impregnating my skin like a warm, wet breeze. When I was completely drenched, I was offered a sort of liquid soap, which I rubbed all over myself, from head to toe.

Standing once more before the warm air sprinklers, I felt the soap begin to evaporate and my skin become completely clean. The air then ceased to be damp, turning dry and warm instead of becoming colder until agreeably cool.” Breakfast in orbit around the planet consisted of fruit juices tasting imperceptibly of mangoes or other tropical fruits. The ship’s captain advised him that to his people, milk was a principal source of nourishment, but that they did not get it from cows but from a mixture of terrestrial and marine plant life.

Zurbaran ate grilled meat, butter and cheese in the vehicle’s mess-room. He was told that the provisions were transported aboard the craft via telepathy (?). Unknown to Zurbaran, thousands of miles away, in the Pyrenees between Spain and France, Jaime Bordas a resident of the village of Castell, was engaged in a strange experience with a six-foot tall, overall wearing humanoid with long blond hair. The otherworldly being would only drink milk as its sole nourishment. (1951).

After the meal, the captain proceeded to regale Zurbaran with his world’s philosophy, religion and history, children and the elderly received special consideration, and there was equality between the occupations. The average life span was 250 years, and collaboration had replaced competition in the area of commerce a utopia made possible by a being they termed, “The Master” or “Beloved Number Nine” who was at the heart of their religion, and who had ruled them for a span of three thousand earth years.

The spaceship returned Zurbaran to his car by the roadside. Confused but excited by his experience, he continued the balance of his drive to Acapulco, learning upon his arrival that it had only taken him an hour and a half to complete a six-hour journey. He did not see the space-people who had befriended him and offered him hospitality again for 15 years, until one night in January 1969 near the outskirts of Mexico City; he gave a ride to a young hitchhiker who turned out to be one the crewmen aboard the UFO that night 15 years in the past. HC addition # 1715 Source: Scott Corrales, Samizdat 1993 Year One
Type: G

Nineteen: Location. Los Toldos, Salta, Argentina Date: January 1954 Time: late night – 25-year old Martin Antiman (now a local Indian “Cacique” ‘chieftain’) was in his room alone when he suddenly heard a very high pitched sound. At the same time a type of “magnetic” force somehow introduced him into a type cabin or “elevator” which had appeared in the room. Immediately after the cabin or elevator departed at fantastic speed and everything became very silent around him. The door suddenly opened and he stepped out finding himself in a sort of mountainous valley very desolate in appearance. He walked about 100 meters and saw several men carrying large bags on their shoulders.

He yelled and whistled at the men in order to communicate with them, but these seemed to ignore him. He then heard a voice in his mind that told him that the men did not answered him because “they had no brains” and could not hear the voice of the “creator”. The voice then told him that he must tell all he could about this “vision”. Soon he was introduced inside the cabin or elevator like object. Moments later the door opened and he found himself back in his room. He never spoke to anyone about this incident for at least 20 years. HC addendum Source: http://www.visionovni.com.ar/ Type: G?

Twenty: Location. Ostia, Rome, Italy Date: January 14 1954 Time: 0130am – A young student, Miss E. D. Bonacini, was returning home with her boyfriend when both of them observed a rectangular red light in the sky. Looking at it again quickly, they saw that the light had changed its shape, becoming a kind of “upside down parachute” that was moving toward them. After 90 seconds, it was very close, nearly overhead, hovering at a height comparable with that of a three—or four story building.

The object resembled a half sphere with a small protuberance in its lower section and a very bright area midsection, fading away toward its outer perimeter. The object was “as wide as the road,” i.e. approximately 18 meters in width. The two witnesses watched from a hidden position for about nine minutes. They had the feeling that “somebody” was observing them from inside of the object. Then, they decided to run away. As they did, the object tilted 45 degrees, attaining a vertical orientation and departing quickly in the direction of Fiumicino. The craft slowed down after some kilometres and became lost from view following another 90 seconds or so. As it departed, the object displayed all the colours of the rainbow. HC addendum Source: Maurizio Verga “When Saucers Came to Earth” Type; F??
(End)

Even with just a small random sample of 20 out of 4000 the diversity of humanities interaction with the ET human mega-population is just amazing. I can see I have to take the time to explore these humanoid cases in more detail. Some humanoid cases are very detailed and involve large numbers of people such as the Father Gill case of 1959. http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case67.htm For more detail on this very well documented case go to this link. http://ufos.about.com/od/bestufocasefiles/p/papua.htm

“Date: June 26, 1959 Location: Papua New Guinea – William B. Gill, an Anglican priest with a mission in Bosinai, Papas New Guinea, observed craft-like UFOs — one with Humanoid figures on top — on two consecutive evenings, June 26-27, 1959. About twenty-five natives, including teachers and medical technicians, also observed the phenomena. They “signaled” the humanoids and received an apparent response. This was one of sixty UFO sightings within a few weeks in the New Guinea area.”

Okay, so let’s bear down on some specific credible detailed extraterrestrial cases shall we. Major George Filer Eastern Director of MUFON is one such very credible contactee who only now as an old man told of his contact with human extraterrestrials as a boy in an interview with exopolitics investigator Neil Gould. http://www.educatinghumanity.com/2011/07/ufo-ufo-video-interview-with-major.html

“In a relaxing moment Major Filer discloses for the first time that he and a childhood friend had consenting encounters with human looking ETs and had actually boarded their spacecraft where they were mentored by highly evolved beings with respect to human behavior, nuclear issues and man’s inhumanity towards man. Major Filer admits that these encounters were the impetus behind his tireless work, keeping around 8000 people informed on UFO sightings worldwide through his Fliers Files.”

Georges contact with human extraterrestrials is not unique among investigators and whistleblowers. When I interviewed Clifford Stone in Roswell in the spring of 2011 he told me that one time when some evil men in the military were really coming down hard on him for speaking out a human extraterrestrial met with him. This human extraterrestrial that looks almost exactly like us told Clifford that if he would just stick it out things would get better and they did. So we see that investigator and contactee George Filer is not alone in being mentored by human extraterrestrials.

The MUFON leadership has generally fallen into disrespect and is under siege from public and the rank and file for being little more than a civilian intelligence gathering and perception management asset for the intelligence community. http://reformmufon.org/ One of the exceptions is George Filer who still maintains great respect in the UFO/ET community for his integrity and credibility and ardent pro-disclosure activities that include the weekly publication of his Filers Files. George now has around 10,000 email subscribers and God know how many other people are following his weekly publication on his web page and elsewhere. As far as I am concerned he is MUFON’s best. http://www.nationalufocenter.com/

George would naturally have a great interest in extraterrestrial humans because of his early personal experiences with ETs that look so much like us that they can mingle with us at will. Because these ET humans are so similar in physical form we might assume that they are further examples of a universal collective or mega-population of extraterrestrials that are the most closely related to us.
George researched and wrote the following very interesting article and published it in his Filers Files. http://www.nationalufocenter.com/artman/publish/article_427.php

I think the reader can begin to see from exopolitical writings like this that the exopolitical impacts upon earth human society have been and are profound both culturally and genetically. Earth humanity seems to be entangled, interconnected and embedded in this universal human mega-population or collective in so many ways, regardless if we are aware of it or not.

Are Homo Sapiens Part Alien?
By George Filer

My theory is that alien visitors have helped the development of humans. We humans and the world’s ancient monuments are evidence for this theory. Genetic evidence indicates when humans left Africa all known people on Earth had dark skin, dark eyes and dark hair. Michael Holick, a professor Boston University School of Medicine who indicates when our ancestors left Africa they adjusted their skin tone to allow in more sunlight to get more Vitamin D. Essentially, from two million years ago to less than 100,000 years ago, the ancestors of all people alive were from Africa.

Genetic evidence indicates that light-skin-related mutations arose recently, and spread fast through Europe and Asia. The theory suggests that the reduction of game meat, fish, and some plants from the diet resulted in skin turning clear many thousands of years after settlement in Europe and Asia. This theory is supported by a study into the SLC24A5 gene which found that the allele associated with light skin in Europe may have originated as recently as 6,000–10,000 years ago.

According to scientists a whole series of fortunate mutations explains white skin, blue and green eyes and blonde hair. I have personally seen alien visitors and chased their extraterrestrial craft, so my experiences have provided insight into the likely actual situation.

A team of daring Chinese researchers, digging into the ancient mysteries of the origin of their country, has come to the inescapable conclusion that an interstellar, supreme alien race used much of the northern and western Chinese regions as massive Earth bases. Hundreds of strange pyramids cover parts of China and former Tibet. The data has been kept secret mainly because the alien race was blonde, blue eyed, with white skin. It seems logical that this alien race mated with the humans on Earth at that time. The ancient Chinese writings reveal this theme. Thanks to Gordon James Gianninoto

Nine university scientists gaped upwards at the gigantic, prehistoric pyramid that they determine was built some 10,000 years ago. One such base may be the astonishing pyramid structure that sits near the apex of Mount Baigong in the western province of Qinghai, the Xian yang pyramid. The Chinese pyramids look similar to those in Egypt, Mexico, Peru and on Mars. According to ancient Chinese legend, over one hundred pyramids discovered in China are the legacy of blue eyed blonde aliens.

Scientist Dr. Carl Sagan in his book, “Intelligent Life in the Universe” indicated Earth had likely been visited by extraterrestrials numerous times. He states, “Sumer was an early–perhaps the first -civilization the contemporary sense on the planet Earth. It was founded in the fourth millennium B.C. or earlier. We don’t know where the Sumerians came from. I feel that if the Sumerian civilization is depicted by the descendants of the Sumerians themselves to be of non-human origin, the relevant legends should be examined carefully.” (Page 456)

He goes on to ask, “What might an advanced extraterrestrial civilization want from us?”……He answered his own question by stating, “One of the primary motivations for the exploration of the New World was to convert the inhabitants to Christianity — peacefully if possible — forcefully if necessary. Can we exclude the possibility of an extraterrestrial evangelism?” (Page 463)

Evangelism essentially is a method of bringing a belief system to others,” The Webster’s New Twentieth Century Dictionary states, Evangelize is to preach the gospel, from ‘Greek eu, good and Angelos, a messenger, to instruct in the gospel, to preach the Gospel, also to convert to Christianity. The sacred writings of most religions clearly claim that Angels or extraterrestrials brought their religious beliefs to Earth. Sumerian brick tablets found all over what is today is Iraq; also tell the story of extraterrestrial visitors and how they brought civilization to Sumer. They explain the visitors taught them to build Ziggurats.

Kenneth Larson writes, “The reason why I found it so interesting concerning your reported ancient Chinese pyramid layouts in your website at www.nationalufocenter.com and my strong interest in the ancient Great Pyramid complex near Cairo, Egypt is that there seems to be a basic mathematical-engineering design pattern to the pyramid layouts on the Earth’s surface.” My research books and drawings try to show how the entire Earth exhibits intelligent mathematical design patterns and grid patterns, and the designs relate to key UFO sightings and the primary American West design patterns and layouts, etc.

One key site is the Great Salt Lake, Utah, settled first by Mormons on July 24, 1847, with related key UFO report sites. Joseph Smith said, “The Earth obeys the laws of a celestial kingdom and the glory of God is intelligence. Hence, the celestial kingdom laws seem to be designs and grid patterns as well as scientific and mathematical precepts and designs based on the pi value.” My 38 published books are in the Los Angeles Central Public Library and the Library of Congress, Washington DC. Also, the planet Mars seems to show similar pyramid plan view units. Thanks to Kenneth Larson

Egyptian pyramids were supposedly built by Egyptians in about 3000 BC, as attempt to imitate the stars in the Belt of Orion. They were not exactly at the correct angle to match up with the pyramids unless the location of the stars is traced back to the belt when it was exactly aligned with the pyramids in 10,500 BC. Allegedly no civilized humans were living on the earth at that time.

The Great Pyramid is so huge and so perfect it is unlikely we could construct it today using the same specifications. Each giant Stone ranges from 1 to 20 tons in weight, and the Great Pyramid was built with well over 100,000 stones. But the Egyptians had no machinery, engines, helicopters, or construction equipment, so it is doubtful they could have built without technological help. The stones came from quarries 500 miles away. Just cutting the stones is extremely difficult, getting the to the building site is a monumental task and how did they place 20 ton stones perfectly hundreds of feet high The top of the pyramid is 481 feet high. A ramp would require as much material as the pyramid.

If the pyramid stones were cut it into foot square blocks, they it would reach two thirds of the way around the world. The Great Pyramid lies on 31 degrees north by 31 degrees west. The pyramid is the center of all of the land mass of the whole earth! I examined the interior of the Great Pyramid and there was no writing or hieroglyphics and it seemed more like a power station than a tomb.

Sitting next to the Great Pyramid is the Sphinx with the body of a lion with a human head. At one time the Sphinx likely had lions head that was perfectly proportioned for the head of a lion, not the human head. This human head looks tiny sitting on top of the lion body and was likely carved out of lion’s head. The Sphinx was also built in 10,500 BC, probably to celebrate the constellation of Leo the Lion rising directly behind the sun. When I visited the Sphinx, it was obvious there are signs of water erosion all over the Sphinx again going back to the same time period. The Egyptians kept very careful historical records but there are no records of them building the Great Giza Pyramid.

Ancient Egyptian scriptures reveal the Tep Zepi, or the First Time when the “gods came from the sky” came down to Earth and raised the land from mud and water. Ptah (Gods of Heaven came to Earth from the Celestial Disk) installed as Egypt’s first Divine Ruler his own son RA. They flew with flying “boats” and brought laws and wisdom to man through a royal line of pharaohs. It is likely that a very advanced alien race came down and altered our genetic pool. Most ancient writings repeat the same theme that gods or extraterrestrial visitors came to make humans in their image.

Professor Paul Davies, from the Australian Center for Astrobiology at Macquarie University in Sydney, believes a cosmic greeting card could have been left in every human cell. The coded message would only be discovered once the human race had the technology to read and understand it.

According to the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia the peoples of the Caucasus Mountains in Russia refer to “Caucasian.” The term Caucasian race has been used to denote the general physical type of some or all of the populations of Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia (Middle East), Central Asia and South Asia. Historically, the term has been used to describe the entire population of these regions, without regard necessarily to skin tone.

For 20,000 years during this closing ice age – called the Upper Paleolithic period – a term referring only to the type of culture that existed amongst these early Homo sapiens – our ancestors, the White race’s ancestors, lived as hunter gatherers in Europe. Their physical remains and artifacts from this time are plentiful – and what is really amazing is how far spread out they were. This first race of people with whom we can claim a genetic affinity, were what is called the proto Nordic racial type – tall, light hair and eyes.

In certain isolated areas in Europe you can still find perfect living examples of this racial type, and they differ only slightly in height from modern day Nordics. This great proto Nordic race lived in a broad band spanning from Spain right across Europe all the way to central Asia and even to the Pacific Rim, where skeletal remains have been found as well. In Siberia and Asia they were eventually absorbed by the Mongoloid races and the same happened in the Pacific Rim – for example the Ainu people of Japan – that society’s highest class – are very clearly crosses of Mongoloids and Whites. They differ substantially from the rest of the Japanese population

The first great White Egyptian civilization was in fact predated by about some 3000 years by the great Sumerian civilization – another population whose racial makeup was predominantly Mediterranean with Nordic ruling elite. This civilization, founded between the two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, even built pyramids – called Ziggurats – of their own long before the Egyptians apparently stole the idea from them. By this time the modern day Nordic racial type had fully developed, and it may come as news to some of you that original large Nordic concentrations were not in fact in Scandinavia, but in modern day Ukraine and South Eastern Russia (hence Whites are mistakenly called Caucasians – after the Causacas Mountains).

The town of Kiev, was for example one of the biggest Nordic cities, dating from about 7000 years ago, and had a population of 20,000 – huge by standards of the time. These Nordics slowly crept westward, invading and re-invading Western Europe for a period of nearly 6000 years, finally resulting in the establishment of a new Nordic heartland in Northern Europe.

These original Nordic tribes had stone buildings and worked bronze and copper. How much of this metal working skill was passed south to the Middle Eastern civilizations remains a matter of debate. However, what is for sure is that successive waves of Nordic tribes started invading central and Southern Europe in earnest about 6 400 years ago, and caused the Mediterranean civilizations (the “Old European” civilizations) to topple. Nordic tribes occupied large regions of Turkey, Crete, Greece and Southern Europe and Italy. The invading Nordics did not kill the largely Mediterranean populations of these areas – obviously feeling some type of racial kinship, but instead just ruled over them.

Some Nordic tribes migrated into the Far East – as far as China, where some Nordic remains have been found in burial chambers. These Nordic tribes also invaded Egypt, but were in turn occupied by a Semitic invasion – the Hyksos, who we only expelled after 100 years of their rule. In the Arctic, the /Inuit never developed light skin, although most Asians do have light skin. It is generally thought the light skin is the result of mutations.

According to Faye Flam staff writer at the Philadelphia Inquirer, Penn State professor of Biological Anthropology, Mark Shriver and colleagues isolated a genetic mutation that contributed to European’s having white skin, a mutation that in zebra fish leads to the absence of the characteristic stripes. Mark Shriver indicates, there is apparently a ten percent of human genetic variation between Scandinavian versus West African races. Although we are similar there are obviously differences in skin color, hair and often eye color. There are also differences in illnesses among races. African-Americans have more diabetes, prostate cancer, and hypertension, while whites have more dementia and osteoporosis. I encourage these experts to look at the evidence for alien visitation, because it solves many scientific anomalies.

I realize this has been kept secret at the highest levels of government. Prince Philip and various high ranking personnel have revealed the well-kept secret. The discovery of DNA, (deoxyribonucleic acid) with all its implications of a very complicated genetic code creates additional evidence for intelligent design rather than theoretical evolution.

The DNA helix must have a planner, a designer. You are thousands of times more complex than even the most sophisticated computer who needed a designer and engineers to build. Even then you also have the spark of life needed to grow and reproduce! A well-known DNA scientist keeps encouraging me, who can’t talk openly states, “The three most interesting genetic anomalies are Rah-factor, HIV, and delta-CCR5. Apes and primitives are Rah plus (+,+), while whites and Asians are close to 25% Rh minus (-,-), just as if our ancestor were blonde alien (-,-) mixed with local (+,+) by Mendelian statistics. A slight selection against pregnancy by (-,-) women lowers that to 20%.

If we had defective HIV in our bodies, we would get antisense resistance to modern HIV. Yet many chimps contain defective HIV, while we do not, at least until 1955 when it was transferred from monkeys to man. If we come from apes, why don’t we see ancient HIV in our genome? “The most interesting mutation is for HIV-resistance, found by looking for homosexuals without AIDS. They were all found in Scandinavia as “delta-32 CCR5”. How to select for resistance to a virus which was not in man before 1955? Some people have shown that it might protect against smallpox or myxo, but why not in India or China where smallpox is rife? Why isn’t it in apes, given the millions of years that an identical gene in apes was exposed to viruses?

The reason is because both chromosomal copies must be deleted at once to give resistance, by a double-hit which is almost impossible randomly. Now we see that delta-32 CCR5 is found with a very recent origin in Finland-Mordovia, spread weakly to northern Russia and northern Europe, but not southern Europe, Africa, Asia, or elsewhere.

Also the Ashkenazi Jews have many strange genes. The most obvious source of this mutation would be those tall blond visitors, who may have crossed with local women a few thousand years ago. Their progeny would go on to raise our scientific level over 5000 years. You can easily access recent information by searching for keywords on Medline / Pubmed at NCBI, say “Rh factor” or “delta-CCR5” crossed with other terms for specificity!

I feel the ancient sacred Sumerian, Chinese, Indian, Jewish writings are correct when they tell us that extraterrestrials (the sons of God mated with the daughters of men, they were fair, and they took them wives of all which they chose, Genesis 6. (End)

The following 1992 case provides additional basis to the argument George Flier and other researchers are making suggesting that human extraterrestrials continue to impact humanity in a broad and invasive fashion. I would call the following an abduction case rather than a contactee case, because the male recipient Mr. Khoury a security guard, who passed a polygraph test, alleges that sexual relations were without his permission and against his will, imposed upon him while in an induced state of unconsciousness by an attractive tall blond extraterrestrial human female.

A second extraterrestrial human apparently was watching and was being instructed or instructing, leading one to speculate that this case is one of many. As one can see something went wrong for the extraterrestrials in this ET experiment as the abductee broke through the mental restraints.

This earth human woke up during the sexual encounter and broke free from the induced mental state, forcing both ET human females to leave after he bit the nipple in a defensive reaction against the female having sexual relations with him. This case is significant because DNA evidence of a rare nature was recovered. The abductee recovered two pubic hairs left behind by the ET human female that was then sent for DNA analysis. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUznIAGy_n8&feature=autoshare

“…the world’s first PCR (polymerase Chain Reaction) DNA profiling of a biological material implicated in an alien abduction experience. The analysis confirmed the hair came from someone who was biologically close to normal genetic, but of an unusual racial type – a rare Chinese Mongoloid – one of the rarest human lineages known, that lies further from the human mainstream than any other except African pygmies and aboriginals.

There was a strange anomaly of it being blonde to clear instead of black, as would be expected from the Asian type mitochondrial DNA. The study concluded, “The most probable donor of the hair must therefore be as (Khoury) claims: a tall blonde female who does not need much color in her hair or skin as a form of protection against the sun, perhaps because she doesn’t require it.” (End)

Such ET cases where there is forensic evidence and lie detector tests for the contactee and abductees provide powerful evidence that some contactee and abductee experiences are real, and gives important insight into the agendas and motives of the extraterrestrials involved. The interests are not just genetic of course, but our genetics and genome do appear to be of great interest to other ET races including the human ones connected to us genetically and culturally, as George Filer has pointed out.

George has already pointed out these tall blond Caucasian peoples once lived in China as is evidenced by around 500 mummies recovered. These mummies are really spectacular and well preserved as can be seen in this video. Like in other parts of the world some seem to be royalty in order to get this kind of preservation treatment. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRj-IR5Aqbg&feature=related Apparently, the information that goes with the mummies is that these people were believed at the time to be sun gods who had descended from the sky and ruled over the people. Notice the swastika on the metal plate in the video, were the Germans in the 1920’s and 1930’s on to something that got perverted and corrupted by the times? http://www.viewzone.com/vril22.html

http://www.facebook.com/notes/michael-lee-hill/an-actual-message-from-the-anunnaki-mankind-in-amnesia-flying-saucer-review-maga/2017197393092 Michael Hill found this interesting article from 1958 relating to the Anunnaki, in Flying Saucer Review. Gordon Creighton was a diplomat, publisher of Flying Saucer Review, and one of the most knowledgeable UFO/ET investigators of his time. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SDsYa7BTenk Where Gordon found this alleged Annunaki message, I have no idea.

An actual message from the Anunnaki – MANKIND IN AMNESIA (Flying Saucer Review Magazine © November-December 1958) Exhibit 19) Brinsley Le Poer Trench (Flying Saucer Review Magazine © November-December 1958)

“We are already here, among you. Some of us have always been here, with you, yet apart from, watching, and occasionally guiding you whenever the opportunity arose. Now, however, our numbers have been increased in preparation for a further step in the development of your planet: a step of which you are not yet aware… We have been confused with the gods of many world-religions, although we are not gods, but your fellow creatures, as you will learn directly before many more years have passed.

You will find records of our presence in the mysterious symbols of ancient Egypt, where we made ourselves known in order to accomplish certain ends. Our principal symbol appears in the religious art of your present civilization and occupies a position of importance upon the great seal of your country. (The United States of America) It has been preserved in certain secret societies founded originally to keep alive the knowledge of our existence and our intentions toward mankind.”

“We have left you certain landmarks, placed carefully in different parts of the globe, but most prominently in Egypt where we established our headquarters upon the occasion of our last overt, or, as you would say, public appearance. At that time the foundations of your present civilization were ‘laid in the earth’ and the most ancient of your known landmarks established by means that would appear as miraculous to you now as they did to the pre-Egyptians, so many thousands of years ago. Since that time the whole art of building, in stone, has become symbolic, too many of you, of the work in hand—the building of the human race towards its perfection.”

“Your ancestors knew us in those days as preceptors and as friends. Now, through your own efforts, you have almost reached, in your majority, a new step on the long ladder of your liberation. You have been constantly aided by our watchful ‘inspiration’, and hindered only by the difficulties natural to your processes of physical and moral development… ”

“You have lately achieved the means of destroying yourselves. Do not be hasty in your self-congratulation. Yours is not the first civilization to have achieved—and used—such means. Yours will not be the first civilization to be offered the means of preventing that destruction and proceeding, in the full glory of its accumulated knowledge, to establish an era of enlightenment upon the earth.” “However, if you do accept the means offered you, and if you establish such a ‘millennium’ upon the basis of your present accomplishments, yours will be the first civilization to do so.

ALWAYS BEFORE, THE KNOWLEDGE, THE TECHNIQUES, THE INSTRUCTIONS, HAVE BECOME THE POSSESSIONS OF A CHOSEN FEW: A FEW CHOSE THEMSELVES BY THEIR OWN OPEN-MINDED AND CLEAR-SIGHTED REALIZATION OF ‘THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME’. THEY ENDEAVORED TO PASS ON THEIR KNOWLEDGE IN THE BEST POSSIBLE FORM, AND BY THE MOST ENDURING MEANS AT THEIR COMMAND.

In a sense they succeeded, but in another sense their failure equaled their success. Human acceptance is, to a very large extent, measurable by human experience. Succeeding generations, who never knew our actual presence, translated the teachings of their elders in the terms of their own experience. For instance, a cross-sectional drawing, much simplified and stylized by many copyings, of one of our traveling machines became the ‘Eye of Horus”, and then other eyes of other gods. Finally, the ancient symbol that was once an accurate representation of an important mechanical device has been given surprising connotations by the modern priesthood of psychology.”

“The important fact is, however, that we are here, among you, and that you, as a world-race, will know it before very much longer! The time is almost ripe but, as with all ripening things, the process may not be hurried artificially without danger of damaging the fruit. There is a right time for every action, and the right time for our revelation of ourselves to your era is approaching.”

“Some of you have seen our ‘advanced guard’ already. You have met us often in the streets of your cities, and you have not noticed us. But when we flash through your skies in the ancient traditional vehicles [Vimanas, see Exhibit 14, this paper—GJ] you are amazed, and those of you who open your mouths and tell of what you have seen are accounted dupes and fools. Actually you are prophets, seers in the true sense of the word. You in Kansas and Oklahoma, you in Oregon and in California, and Idaho, you know what you have seen: do not be dismayed by meteorologists. Their business is the weather. One of you says, ‘I saw a torpedo-shaped object’. Others report, ‘disc-like objects’, some of you say ‘spherical objects’, or ‘platter-like objects’. You are all reporting correctly and accurately what you saw, and in most cases you are describing the same sort of vehicle.”

“… Now that the art of manufacturing plastic materials has reached a certain perfection among you, perhaps you can imagine a material, almost transparent to the rays of ordinary visible light, yet strong enough to endure the stresses of extremely rapid flight. Look again at the great nebulae, and think of the construction of your own galaxy, and behold the universal examples of what we have found to be the perfect shape for an object which is to travel through what you still fondly refer to as ‘empty’ space.”

In the centre of the discus, gyroscopically controlled within a central sphere of the same transparent material, our control rooms revolve freely, accommodating themselves and us to flat or edgewise flight. Both methods are suited to your atmosphere, and when we convert abruptly from one to the other, as we are sometimes obliged to do, and you are watching, our machines seem suddenly to appear—or to disappear. At our possible speeds your eyes, untrained and unprepared for the maneuver, do make mistakes—but not the mistakes your scientists so often accuse them of making.”

“We pass over your hilltops in horizontal flight. You see and report a torpedo-shaped object. We pass over, in formation, flying vertically ‘edge-on’… Or we go over at night, jet-slits glowing, and you see an orange disc. In any event you see us, and in any event we do not care. If we chose to remain invisible, we could do so, easily, and, in fact, we have done so almost without exception for hundreds of years. But you must become accustomed to our shapes in your skies, for one day they will be familiar, friendly, and reassuring sights.”

“This time, it is to be hoped that the memory of them, passed on to your children and their children, will be clear and precise. That you will not cause them to forget, as your ancestors forgot, the meaning of the diagrams and the instructions we will leave with you. If you do fail, as other civilizations have failed, we will see your descendants wearing wiring-diagrams for simple machines as amulets, expecting the diagrams to do what their forefathers were taught the completed article would accomplish. Then their children, forgetting even that much—or little—would preserve the amulet as a general protective device—or as an intellectual curiosity—or perhaps as a religious symbol. Such is the cycle of forgetfulness!” – The Anunnaki (End)

We exopolitical investigators are encouraged to speculate based upon the evidence, and our general knowledge of extraterrestrials, that these people ancient people were or are descended from ET humans and so we and the tall blonde ET human extraterrestrials and others with dark hair and Eurasian features may share the same ancestors. This would show just how closely related we really are to some ET humans.

Naturally if this is so, the human extraterrestrials would have a strong family interest in continued experimentation and tracking of bloodlines to the present day. If one takes time to run through the humanoid cases these tall blond humans are frequently mentioned indicating that they have been having a large impact on earth humanity for a long time.

The range of species within the human extraterrestrial collective or mega-population seems to very large and run the gamut between at least several species of extraterrestrial humans almost exactly like ourselves, to the Tall Whites who stand out if not disguised, to quite different as in the Fontes case, to what appear to be biological robots partially constructed from human and other non-human species DNA along with inorganic materials and machine technologies.

However others like the well respected and credible George Filer, are also catching on and together we are bearing down on the truth from multiple individual perspectives and experiences even while other investigators and researchers find themselves bogged down in denial or have become so loose minded that they go over the cliff into delusion. It seems to me that most people can’t tolerate a high degree of uncertainty in their lives.

It seems to me many folks don’t have the patience and or capability to mine and process all this UFO/ET ore in order to extract the facts properly through a lifetime of work. Many people take the easy way out and retreat, on the one hand into either denial beliefs, or on the other hand irrational disinformation induced delusionary beliefs when confronted by UFO/ET information.

Why in the world so many people in the UFO community would want to feed on copious amounts of intellectual false sensationalistic contactee garbage when there are some really good credible cases of human ET contact available is beyond me.
While most cases of extensive extraterrestrial contact involve single or just several individuals at the most there are a few very controversial contact cases that involve many people and that seem to span continents.

Some believe these cases are real, others think they are cults, but it seems to me that the people being interviewed are sincere and I have been impressed as to the depth of the investigations especially the Chile case where a mainstream documentary was made that uncovered even more witnesses and even exposed a fraudulent contactee hidden in the mist of the real contactees involved.

I am a bit reluctant to put these cases in this book but having thought on this a lot I feel that the readers should be aware of these rare group cases in spite of the controversy surrounding them. I do find myself turning my spam filter up a bit when researching these cases because of the complexity of the cases and the possibility that these could be cult related. We just need to take these cases as part of the greater context within which this book has been written.

Recently I became aware of a longstanding extraterrestrial human contact case called, Friendship that if true involves many people both in Europe and in Chile, South America. The only other alleged contact case involving so many people that I am aware of is the controversial Ummo Case. What I found compelling about the following two videos was that the contactees seem very sincere and as the investigators investigated they found even more individuals that claimed contact especially in the Chile case.

In clips 11/12 and 12/12 there seems to be an Annunaki connection. While there is a huge amount of historical evidence of the Annunaki in the Bible, the Hindu Scriptures and the Sumerian clay tablets modern cases are hard to come by. It’s still a bit hard to determine if these two cases are really related, the one in Italy and the one in Chile. Italian Friendship case: http://www.ufo-blogger.com/2011/05/project-il-caso-amicizia.html Chile Friendship case: http://www.ufo-blogger.com/2010/06/extraterrestrial-humanoid-had-lived-in.html

The following article is from exopolitical investigator Paola Harris’s website, who while not the writer of this article, has investigated the Italy Friendship case. http://www.paolaharris.com/masscontact.htm

Mass Contact – A Review, Aliens Among Us! By Barbara Barbatelli.

In these days the Italian UFO community is under shock after the recent publication of a new, extraordinary book by Edizioni Nexus. Its title is “Contattismi di Massa” (“Mass Contacts”) and was written by Professor Stefano Breccia, a famous and esteemed engineer from Abruzzi. His impressive curriculum shows us a long academic career in L’Aquila’s and many other Italian and foreign Universities. He is also a founding member of the Italian Ufological Centre (CUN).
The author recalls and investigates many cases in which contacts with aliens did not occur to single, isolated individuals but, on the contrary, involved entire groups of people, more or less organized in communities, who lived together the same experiences. Some of these groups decided to reveal what was happening, some others preferred to keep everything secret.

This completely new and intriguing scenery will open to researchers the possibility, for the first time in Ufology, to investigate on crossed sources of information, to trace the many witnesses involved, verifying their reciprocal links, and to study facts, times and places from many and different points of view at the same time.

The book re-opens and deepens, with new and never published details, the famous case of “UMMO”. This was the name of a race of self-defining extraterrestrials who sent for decades an incredible amount of letters to famous scientists and researchers living in Spain, France, and Italy etc. These letters were filled with extremely complicated notions denoting very advanced scientific knowledge. Many of the scientists who had received them later admitted they had been inspired by those letters, owing to that superior science many of their inventions and discoveries.

The book also shows a completely unknown corollary of the “UMMO case” involving central Italy and, more specifically, the town of Rome and the archaeological Etruscan ruins of Veio. During the seventies in those places acted, completely undisturbed, many extraterrestrials calling themselves “Italic Ummites”. They looked like humans and for this reason could perfectly hide and integrate in our society. These beings, who possessed a technology well far beyond ours, produced many phenomena for us indistinguishable from magic and used their abilities to direct and manipulate a group of young UFO enthusiasts.

But the real “bomb” contained in “Mass Contacts” blasts when we read the third chapter: The Story of “FRIENDSHIP”. In this chapter we assist to the fall of a secrecy that had enveloped for decades a case cited very sporadically and suspiciously only by few investigators (the best informed ones). They had some evidences suggesting that in Italy, from 1956 to 1978, something TREMENDOUS had happened, but all their efforts to discover the truth had failed. The fact was that the group involved in the case had decided to keep everything secret; many of them were famous and influent people and could not ruin their lives and careers saying they had met face to face with extraterrestrial people. They knew the world was not ready yet.

Now at last, Professor Stefano Breccia (a member of “Friendship” himself, as we can easily infer), providing many impressive documents and testimonies, disclosures the truth on the entire story to give homage and justice to the memory of his big friend, the late Dr. Bruno Sammaciccia, pivot figure in the “Friendship” group, and gives him the word publishing a long taped interview to his friend.
Professor Bruno Sammaciccia was a well-known Psychologist and Theologian from Pescara. He wrote many volumes on religious subjects including the study of miracles, holy relics, the Order of San Francis of Assisi and the history of compared Religions.

His works have been translated in many languages and are well represented in all main religious libraries all over the world. He received the UNESCO prize “Man of the Year” in 1982, was friend of many important people and high prelates and the same Pope Karol Woytila, at the time Cardinal of Cracow, wrote a friendly dedication on one of his books.

His public and irreprehensible image hid a fantastic and science fiction-like reality: From 1956 to 1978 Bruno Sammaciccia and many other people had continuative and intense contacts with extraterrestrial entities coming from planets orbiting around many different stars, many light years distant from our Solar System, forming part of a Galactic Federation.

Just like Enoch Wallace, the leading character of Clifford Simak’s “Way Station”, Bruno Sammaciccia found himself in the middle of an incredible passage of aliens on this planet Earth. They had many underground bases; the biggest one was under the Adriatic Sea and was long more than one hundred kilometers. Bruno Sammaciccia’s duties ranged from buying and transporting goods to the underground bases, to organizing a selected group of terrestrials capable to understand the alien knowledge and to spread it more and more to humanity.

The whole operation had to remain secret. The total number of the lucky earthlings admitted to such a fantastic group is esteemed from Professor Breccia in no more than 200 people, including similar groups in Austria, Germany and Russia. They spontaneously called themselves “Friendship”, “Freundshaft”, “Amitiè” and, of course, “Amicizia”, because the wonderful “human” warmness of the space visitors had suggested in everyone the same feeling.

Bruno Sammaciccia gave to his “Friends” the code-name of “W56” (“W” from the sign of victory and “56” from the year of the first contact). He describes them as human in the shape but very different in tallness, ranging from one meter to three meters and a half…in one occasion he and other people near Pescara saw from a distance some giants six meters tall!

The aliens “normally” tall showed to be perfectly fit in our society and had a knowledge of our world and our history much deeper than ours. They had technologies like teleportation or interstellar travel but enjoyed themselves driving our cars or piloting our planes. They loved our foods and they loved smoking too! They knew that exceeding in some habits can be dangerous and used to take regularly some antidotes. Anyway the different atmosphere and gravity of their re-created environment could completely decontaminate bodies from toxic substances; this healing effect was experimented also from Sammaciccia and his human friends who had access to underground bases.

The “W56” aliens said they wanted to help humans to survive because, especially during the last decades, human civilization had chosen very dangerous paths, blindly trusting in science and forgetting morals. They said that the other civilizations, in space and on earth, who had made the same errors, had invariably perished. They could not interfere at a mass level with us because our culture would have been destroyed, but they could gently address with their teaching a little number of selected terrestrials to a better future, and their messages had to be spread in this way to more and more people, generation after generation.

Unfortunately the “W56” were fiercely struggled by a hostile race they called “our enemy brothers” and for this reason also our unaware human race was involved in some kind of “Star War”. Sammaciccia re-named these enemies “CTR” (from “contraries” and one of the duties of the “Friendship” group consisted in helping W56’s efforts to stop CTR’s evil actions. The CTR are described like totally similar to us and this characteristic made them extremely dangerous, they were perfectly fit in our society, hyper technological and totally lacking in morals.

After almost thirty years of these fantastic interactions the history of “Friendship” came to a tragic end. The W56 were defeated, the CTR destroyed the enormous bases where also humans had gone many times and the Adriatic Sea erupted with many water columns, causing death and fear among fishermen in 1978. Sammaciccia states that humans too were culpable for this horrible end, because they had not trusted each other and they had not supported enough their alien “Friends”.

Anyway W 56 promised they would come back at the beginning of the new century and Bruno Sammaciccia ends his long interview to Stefano Breccia hoping to see them again. Sadly the theologian died in 2003 not realizing his wishes, at least in this world. Now we have his extremely touching words and we have the duty to study the enormous amount of verifiable and concrete facts contained in Stefano Breccia’s volume.

Talking about “facts”, at the end of this book we can see a very clear photo of a W56. The person is in full light and all his body and face characteristics are perfectly detailed. For the first time in Ufology the image of a so-called “alien” is so clear, so “Human” (how tall is he?) and with no trace of photographic effects to make it more “exotic”. Now researchers and debunkers will obviously try to verify the photo confronting that face with all similar faces they’ll be able to discover and, in case, they will probably open also the police archives! That face is too recognizable; what happened if somebody would identify that guy saying:” HEY, I know him, he is my cousin!(or my brother, friend, husband etc…)”? the whole story would fall, of course.

So, why Dr.Breccia exposed his name and his career to such a great risk? Perhaps because he is totally certain that the person portrayed in that photo was not from this Earth. If the “Friendship” story is true it represents one of the most important cases in Ufology and an immense heritage for humanity. (End)

Perhaps the reader may be wondering how mega-populations of extraterrestrials could organize themselves while traveling hundreds of light years or maybe even billions of light years away from each other using exotic propulsion systems that defeat space and time. The answer seems to already be out in the public domain and it is that of communication by quantum entanglement.

Quantum entanglement communications would seem to be the way ETs communicate and organize themselves across vast distances and quantum entanglement communication is being proved to work with new developments happening on a regular basis. It’s well known that many ET races are telepathic which seems to be based on quantum entanglement. Forget about primitive electromagnetic communications as the propagandists of SETI would have you believe in their false time line narrative to ET contact. In reality I have been showing in this book that contact began long ago in the real narrative with classified shadow governments now interacting and coordinating with several ET civilizations.

The very fact that all this information about quantum communications is coming out in the public domain leads me to believe that just as in other areas, black technologies in the classified world are way ahead of public knowledge and I would suspect that the NSA already is far advanced in transmitting and receiving ET quantum communications. The Dan Sherman case indicates that. Also if our secret space fleet is already traveling to the stars as has been suggested by credible people like Ben Rich, then we can expect that the fleet could already be using instantaneous quantum communications to communicate with and organize the fleet and to communicate back with the home planet just as ET seems to be doing.

The reader can see from this article that entanglement communications are now far advanced from just sending messages via photons and other high energy particles. I would expect hear any day that they can teleport matter via quantum entanglement and not just photons and other small high energy particles. http://www.livescience.com/17264-quantum-entanglement-macroscopic-diamonds.html I guess if intelligent beings become really advanced enough they could travel by teleportation rather than even using exotic propulsion systems.

“Scientists have linked two diamonds in a mysterious process called entanglement that is normally only seen on the quantum scale. Entanglement is so weird that Einstein dubbed it “spooky action at a distance.” It’s a strange effect where one object gets connected to another so that even if they are separated by large distances, an action performed on one will affect the other. Entanglement usually occurs with subatomic particles, and was predicted by the theory of quantum mechanics, which governs the realm of the very small. But now physicists have succeeded in entangling two macroscopic diamonds, demonstrating that quantum mechanical effects are not limited to the microscopic scale.

“If the two diamonds weren’t entangled, the researchers would expect each detector to register a changed laser beam about 50 percent of the time. It’s similar to tossing a coin, where random chance would lead to heads about half the time and tails the other half the time on average. Instead, because the two diamonds were linked, they found that one detector measured the change every time, and the other detector never fired. The two diamonds, it seemed, were so connected they reacted as a single entity, rather than two individual objects.” (End)

In this article scientists show we are well on our way in the public domain to use quantum entanglement communication over large distances. http://www.quantum.at/research/quantum-teleportation-communication-entanglement/entangled-photons-over-144-km.html

“Here we report a significant step towards satellite based quantum communication by transmitting an entangled photon over a distance of 144 km between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife via an optical free-space link. The transmitted photon was received in the Optical Ground Station of the European Space Agency, and the entangled partner photon was detected locally at the transmitter. We have succeeded in establishing quantum correlations under experimental constraints and conditions characteristic for a Space-to-ground experiment.“ (End)

More to the point the following article speculates that telepathy involves quantum entanglement. http://www.hardsf.org/HSFTEnta.htm “Some people have suggested that psychic powers do exist or other communication could exist using quantum entanglement to allow instantaneous messages over any distance.”
Quantum entanglement is an accepted part of quantum physics. The concept is often associated with an argument Einstein and others used to try to demonstrate limitations of quantum theory and the Uncertainty Principle. Einstein described an experiment in which two particles would be created by the same process, but would head in opposite directions.

If at some time you were to establish certain attributes of one of the particles, you could use that to determine that attribute of the other particle. Einstein argued this could be used to get information on particles that was inconsistent with the Uncertainty Principle and would indicate that the particles actually have definite properties at all times rather than just probabilities of values.

However, what physicists have come to accept is that this does not mean that testing one particle tells us about attributes the other particle already had. Instead, it is believed that when one particle is tested that fact is instantaneously conveyed to the other particle which then is forced to acquire a particular property. This takes place by some means that does not involve exchange of photons or other means limited by the speed of light.” (End)

In summary the evidence for human and humanoid extraterrestrial contact is overwhelming as the reader has seen if they fully investigate these thousands of contact cases. I think the evidence is beyond a reasonable doubt that there is this mega-population of humans and humanoids that most likely are spread across our universe.

Who knows maybe if there is a multi-universe with many dimensions this human collective most likely has spread beyond our own universe and into these other dimensions and multi-universes. I am reminded by those with intimate inside knowledge of the classified world that tell us that the truth is beyond what we can possibly imagine.

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Mega Fail: 17 Signs That The European Financial System Is Heading For An Implosion Of Historic Proportions

Posted by Admin on December 22, 2011

http://www.pakalertpress.com/2011/12/14/mega-fail-17-signs-that-the-european-financial-system-is-heading-for-an-implosion-of-historic-proportions/

Posted on  on December 14, 2011 // Leave Your Comment

The Economic Collapse

What happens when you attempt a cold shutdown of one of the biggest debt spirals that the world has ever seen?  Well, we are about to find out.  The politicians in Europe have decided that they are going to “take their medicine” and put strict limits on budget deficits.  They have also decided that the European Central Bank is not going to engage in reckless money printing to “paper over” the debts of troubled nations.  This may all sound wonderful to many of you, but the reality is that there is always a tremendous amount of pain whenever a massive debt spiral is interrupted.  Just look at what happened to Greece.  Greece was forced to raise taxes and implement brutal austerity measures.  That caused the economy to slow down and tax revenues to decline and so government debt figures did not improve as much as anticipated.  So Greece was forced to implement even more brutal austerity measures.  Well, that caused the economy to slow down even more and tax revenues declined again.  In Greece this cycle has been repeated several times and now Greece is experiencing a full-blown economic depression.  100,000 businesses have closed and a third of the population is living in poverty.  But now Germany and France intend to impose the “Greek solution” on the rest of Europe.  This is going to create the conditions needed for a “perfect storm” to develop and it means that the European financial system is heading for an implosion of historic proportions.

The easiest way to deal with a debt spiral is to let it keep going and going.  That is what the United States has done.  Sure, “kicking the can down the road” makes the crisis much worse in the long run, but bringing the pain into the present is not a lot of fun either.

Europe has decided to do something that is unprecedented in the post-World War II era.  They have decided to put very strict limits on budget deficits and to impose tough sanctions on any nations that break the rules.  They have also decided that they are not going to allow the European Central Bank to fund the debts of troubled nations with reckless money printing.

Without a doubt, this is a German solution for a German-dominated Europe.  Germany does not want to pay for the debt mistakes of other EU nations, and so they are shoving bitter austerity down the throats of those that have gotten into too much debt.

But this solution is not going to be implemented without a massive amount of pain.

In fact, this solution is going to make a massive financial collapse much more likely.  The following are 17 signs that the European financial system is heading for an implosion of historic proportions….

#1 As noted above, when you reduce government spending you also slow down the economy.  We have already seen what brutal austerity has done to Greece – 100,000 businesses have shut down, a third of the population is living in poverty and there is rioting in the streets.  Now that brand of brutal austerity is going to be imposed in almost every single nation in Europe.

#2 As the economy slows down in Europe, unemployment will rise.  There are already 10 different European nations that have an “official” unemployment rate of over 10 percent and the next recession has not even officially started yet.

#3 Before it is all said and done, the EU nations that are drowning in debt will likely need trillions of euros in bailout money just to survive.  But at this point Germany and the other wealthy nations of northern Europe are sick and tired of bailouts and do not plan to hand over trillions of euros.

#4 The European Central Bank could theoretically print up trillions of euros and buy up massive amounts of European sovereign debt, but this would go against existing treaties and most of the major politicians in Europe are steadfastly against this right now.  But without such intervention it is hard to see how the ECB will be able to keep bond yields from absolutely skyrocketing for long.  In fact, without massive ECB intervention it is hard to see how the eurozone is going to be able to stay together at all.  Graeme Leach, the chief economist at the Institute of Directors, said the following recently….

“Unless the ECB begins to operate as a sovereign lender of last resort function, with massive purchases of eurozone public debt, the inexorable logic is that the eurozone will break up.”

#5 European leaders are hoping that the new treaty that was just agreed to will be ratified by the end of the summer.  In reality, it will probably take much longer than that.  German Chancellor Angela Merkel has made it clear that the solution to this debt crisis is going to take a long time to implement….

“It’s a process, and this process will take years.”

Unfortunately, Europe does not have years.  Europe is rapidly running out of time.  A massive financial crisis is steamrolling right at them and they need solutions right now.

#6 Sadly, the cold, hard reality of the matter is that none of the fundamental problems that Europe is facing were fixed by this recent “agreement” as Ambrose Evans-Pritchard recently noted in one of his columns….

There is no shared debt issuance, no fiscal transfers, no move to an EU Treasury, no banking licence for the ESM rescue fund, and no change in the mandate of the European Central Bank.

In short, there is no breakthrough of any kind that will convince Asian investors that this monetary union has viable governance or even a future.

Germany has kept the focus exclusively on fiscal deficits even though everybody must understand by now that this crisis was not caused by fiscal deficits (except in the case of Greece). Spain and Ireland were in surplus, and Italy had a primary surplus.

#7 Nobody wants to lend to European banks right now.  Everyone knows that there are dozens of European banks in danger of failing, and nobody wants to throw any more money into those black holes.  The U.S.Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank have been lending them money, but a lot of European banks are already starting to run out of “acceptable forms of collateral” for those loans as one Australian news source recently explained….

“If anyone thinks things are getting better, they simply don’t understand how severe the problems are,” a London executive at a global bank said. “A major bank could fail within weeks.”

Others said many continental banks, including French, Italian and Spanish lenders, were close to running out of the acceptable forms of collateral, such as US Treasury bonds, that could be used to finance short-term loans.

Some have been forced to lend out their gold reserves to maintain access to US dollar funding.

So will the U.S. Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank keep lending them money once they are out of acceptable collateral?

If not, we could start to see banks fail in rapid succession.

Charles Wyplosz, a professor of international economics at Geneva’s Graduate Institute, is absolutely certainthat we are going to see some major European banks collapse….

“Banks will collapse, including possibly a number of French banks that are very exposed to Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain.”

#8 Not only does nobody want to lend money to them, major banks all over Europe are also dramatically cutting back on lending to consumers and businesses as they attempt to meet new capital-adequacy requirements by next June.

According to renowned financial journalistAmbrose Evans-Pritchard, European banks need to reduce the amount of lending on their books by about 7 trillion dollars in order to get down to safe levels….

Europe’s banks face a $7 trillion lending contraction to bring their balance sheets in line with the US and Japan, threatening to trap the region in a credit crunch and chronic depression for a decade.

When nobody wants to lend to the banks, and when the banks severely cut back on lending to others, that is called a “credit crunch”.  In such an environment, it is incredibly difficult to avoid a major recession.

#9 European banks are absolutely overloaded with “toxic assets” that they are desperate to get rid of.  Just as we saw with U.S. banks back in 2008, major European banks are busy trying to unload mountains of worthless assets that have a book value of trillions of euros.  Unfortunately for the banks, virtually nobodywants to buy them.

#10 European bond yields are still incredibly high even though the European Central Bank has spent over 274 billion dollars buying up European government bonds.

Up until now, the European Central Bank has been taking money out of the system (by taking deposits or by selling assets for example) whenever it injects new money into the system by buying bonds.  That makes this different from the quantitative easing that the U.S. Federal Reserve has done.  But at some point the European Central Bank is going to run out of ways to take money out of the system, and when that happens either the Germans will have to allow the ECB to print money out of thin air to buy bonds with or we will finally see the market determine the true value of European government bonds.

#11 Bond yields are going to become even more important in 2012, because huge mountains of European sovereign debt are scheduled to be rolled over next year.  For example, Italy must roll over approximately 20 percent of its entire sovereign debt during 2012.

#12 Once the new treaty is ratified, eurozone governments will lose the power to respond to a major recession by dramatically increasing government spending.  So if the governments of Europe cannot spend more money in response to the coming financial crisis, and if the ECB cannot print more money in response to the coming financial crisis, then what is going to keep the coming recession from turning into a full-blown depression?

#13 Credit rating agencies are warning that more credit downgrades may be coming in Europe. For example, Moody’s recently stated the following….

“While our central scenario remains that the euro area will be preserved without further widespread defaults, shocks likely to materialise even under this ‘positive’ scenario carry negative credit and rating implications in the coming months. And the longer the incremental approach to policy persists, the greater the likelihood of more severe scenarios, including those involving multiple defaults by euro area countries and those additionally involving exits from the euro area.”

#14 S&P has put 15 members of the eurozone (including Germany) on review for a possible credit downgrade.

#15 The stock prices of many major European banks are in the process of collapsing.  If you doubt this, just check out the charts in this article.

#16 Bank runs have begun in some parts of Europe.  For example, a recent article posted on Yahoo Newsdescribed what has been going on in Latvia….

Latvia’s largest bank scrambled Monday to head off a run among depositors who were gripped by rumours of the bank’s imminent ruin.

Weekend rumours that Swedbank was facing legal and liquidity problems in Estonia and Sweden sent thousands of Latvians to bank machines on Sunday, with some lines reaching as many as 50 people.

The Greek banking system is literally on the verge of collapse.  According to a recent Der Spiegel article, the run on Greek banks is rapidly accelerating….

He means that the outflow of funds from Greek bank accounts has been accelerating rapidly. At the start of 2010, savings and time deposits held by private households in Greece totalled €237.7 billion — by the end of 2011, they had fallen by €49 billion. Since then, the decline has been gaining momentum. Savings fell by a further €5.4 billion in September and by an estimated €8.5 billion in October — the biggest monthly outflow of funds since the start of the debt crisis in late 2009.

#17 There are already signs that European economic activisty (as well as global economic activity) is really starting to slow down.  Just consider the following statistics from a recent article by Stephen Lendman….

In November, French business confidence fell for the eighth consecutive month. In October, Japanese machinery orders dropped 6.9%, following an 8.2% plunge in September.

South Africa just reported a 5.6% drop in manufacturing activity. Britain recorded a 0.7% decline. China’s October exports fell 1.7% after dropping 3.8% in September.

Korea’s exports are down three consecutive months. Singapore’s were off in September and October. Indonesia’s plunged 8.5% in October after slipping 2% in September. India’s imploded 18.3% after being flat in September.

Are you starting to get the picture?

Europe is in a massive amount of trouble.

The equation is simple….

Brutal austerity + toxic levels of government debt + rising bond yields + a lack of confidence in the financial system + banks that are massively overleveraged + a massive credit crunch = A financial implosion of historic proportions

Unless something truly dramatic happens, the economy of Europe is a dead duck.

There is no way that Europe is going to be able to substantially reduce the flow of money coming from national governments and substantially reduce the flow of money coming from the banks and still be able to avoid a major recession.

Look, I want it to be very clear that I am in no way advocating government debt in this article.  It is just that under the debt-based monetary paradigm that we are all operating under, there is no way that you can dramatically reduce government spending without experiencing a whole lot of pain.

An economic “perfect storm” is developing in Europe.  All of the things that need to happen for a major recession to occur are falling into place.

So does anyone out there disagree with me?  Does anyone think that Europe is going to be just fine?

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70 Years Ago, December 1941: Turning Point of World War II The victory of the Red Army in front of Moscow was a major break…

Posted by Admin on December 20, 2011

http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=28059

by Jacques R. Pauwels

Global Research, December 6, 2011

World War II started, at least as far as the “European Theatre” was concerned, with the German army steamrolling over Poland in September, 1939. About six months later, even more spectacular victories followed, this time over the Benelux Countries and France. By the summer of 1940, Germany looked invincible and predestined to rule the European continent indefinitely. (Great Britain admittedly refused to throw in the towel, but could not hope to win the war on its own, and had to fear that Hitler would soon turn his attention to Gibraltar, Egypt, and/or other jewels in the crown of the British Empire.) Five years later, Germany experienced the pain and humiliation of total defeat. On April 20, 1945, Hitler committed suicide in Berlin as the Red Army bulldozed its way into the city, reduced to a heap of smoking ruins, and on May 8/9 German surrendered unconditionally. Clearly, then, sometime between late 1940 and 1944 the tide had turned rather dramatically. But when, and where? In Normandy in 1944, according to some; at Stalingrad, during the winter of 1942-43, according to others. In reality, the tide turned in December 1941 in the Soviet Union, more specifically, in the barren plain just west of Moscow. As a German historian, an expert on the war against the Soviet Union, has put it: “That victory of the Red Army [in front of Moscow] was unquestionably the major break [Zäsur] of the entire world war.”[1]

That the Soviet Union was the scene of the battle that changed the course of World War II, should come as no surprise. War against the Soviet Union was the war Hitler had wanted from the beginning, as he had made very clear on the pages of Mein Kampf, written in the mid-1920s. (But an Ostkrieg, a war in the east, i.e. against the Soviets, was also the object of desire of the German generals, of Germany’s leading industrialists, and of other “pillars” of Germany’s establishment.) In fact, as a German historian has just recently demonstrated,[2] it was a war against the Soviet Union, and not against Poland, France, or Britain, that Hitler had wanted to unleash in 1939. On August 11 of that year, Hitler explained to Carl J. Burckhardt, an official of the League of Nations, that “everything he undertook was directed against Russia,” and that “if the West [i.e. the French and the British] is too stupid and too blind to comprehend this, he would be forced to reach an understanding with the Russians, turn and defeat the West, and then turn back with all his strength to strike a blow against the Soviet Union.”[3] This is in fact what happened. The West did turn out to be “too stupid and blind”, as Hitler saw it, to give him “a free hand” in the east, so he did make a deal with Moscow – the infamous “Hitler-Stalin Pact” – and then unleashed war against Poland, France and Britain. But his objective remained the same: to attack and destroy the Soviet Union as soon as possible.

Hitler and the German generals were convinced they had learned an important lesson from World War I. Devoid of the raw materials needed to win a modern war, such as oil and rubber, Germany could not win a long, drawn-out war. In order to win the next war, Germany would have to win it fast, very fast. This is how the Blitzkrieg-concept was born, that is, the idea of warfare (Krieg) fast as “lightning” (Blitz). Blitzkrieg meant motorized war, so in preparation for such a war Germany during the thirties cranked out massive numbers of tanks and planes as well as trucks to transport troops. In addition, gargantuan amounts of oil and rubber were imported and stockpiled. Much of this oil was purchased from US corporations, some of which also kindly made available the “recipe” for producing synthetic fuel from coal.[4] In 1939 and 1940, this equipment permitted the German Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe to overwhelm the Polish, Dutch, Belgian, and French defenses with thousands of planes and tanks in a matter of weeks; Blitzkriege, “lightning-fast wars,” were invariably followed by Blitzsiege, “lightning-fast victories.”

These victories were spectacular enough, but they did not provide Germany with much loot in the form of vitally important oil and rubber. Instead, “lightning warfare” actually depleted the stockpiles built up before the war. Fortunately for Hitler, in 1940 and 1941 Germany was able to continue importing oil from the still neutral United States – not directly, but via other neutral (and friendly) countries such as Franco’s Spain. Moreover, under the terms of the Hitler-Stalin Pact the Soviet Union herself also supplied Germany rather generously with oil! However, it was most troubling for Hitler that, in return, Germany had to supply the Soviet Union with high-quality industrial products and state-of-the-art military technology, which was used by the Soviets to modernize their army and improve their weaponry.[5]

It is understandable that Hitler already resurrected his earlier plan for war against the Soviet Union soon after the defeat of France, namely, in the summer of 1940. A formal order to prepare plans for such an attack, to be code-named Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was given a few months later, on December 18, 1940.[6] Already in 1939 Hitler had been most eager to attack the Soviet Union, and he had turned against the West only, as a German historian has put it, “in order to enjoy security in the rear (Rückenfreiheit) when he would finally be ready to settle accounts with the Soviet Union.” The same historian concludes that by 1940 nothing had changed as far as Hitler was concerned: “The true enemy was the one in the east.”[7] Hitler simply did not want to wait much longer before realizing the great ambition of his life, that is, before destroying the country he had defined as his archenemy in Mein Kampf. Moreover, he knew that the Soviets were frantically preparing their defenses for a German attack which, as they knew only too well, would come sooner or later. Since the Soviet Union was getting stronger by the day, time was obviously not on Hitler’s side. How much longer could he wait before the “window of opportunity” would close?

Furthermore, waging a Blitzkrieg against the Soviet Union promised to provide Germany with the virtually limitless resources of that huge country, including Ukrainian wheat to provide Germany’s population with plenty of food, also at wartime; minerals such as coal, from which synthetic rubber and oil could be produced; and – last but certainly not least! – the rich oil fields of Baku and Grozny, where the gas-guzzling Panzers and Stukas would be able to fill their tanks to the brim at any time. Steeled with these assets, it would then be a simple matter for Hitler to settle accounts with Britain, starting, for example, with the capture of Gibraltar. Germany would finally be a genuine world power, invulnerable within a European “fortress” stretching from the Atlantic to the Urals, possessed of limitless resources, and therefore capable to win even long, drawn-out wars against any antagonist – including the US! – in one of the future “wars of the continents” conjured up in Hitler’s feverish imagination.

Hitler and his generals were confident that the Blitzkrieg they prepared to unleash against the Soviet Union would be as successful as their earlier “lightning wars” against Poland and France had been. They considered the Soviet Union as a “giant with feet of clay”, whose army, presumably decapitated by Stalin’s purges of the late 1930s, was “not more than a joke,” as Hitler himself put it on one occasion.[8] In order to fight, and of course win, the decisive battles, they allowed for a campaign of four to six weeks, possibly to be followed by some mopping-up operations, during which the remnants of the Soviet host would “be chased across the country like a bunch of beaten Cossacks.”[9] In any event, Hitler felt supremely confident, and on the eve of the attack, he “fancied himself to be on the verge of the greatest triumph of his life.”[10]

(In Washington and London, the military experts likewise believed that the Soviet Union would not be able to put up significant resistance to the Nazi juggernaut, whose military exploits of 1939-40 had earned it a reputation of invincibility. The British secret services were convinced that the Soviet Union would be “liquidated within eight to ten weeks,” and Field Marshal Sir John Dill, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, averred that the Wehrmacht would slice through the Red Army “like a warm knife through butter,” that the Red Army would be rounded up “like cattle.” According to expert opinion in Washington, Hitler would “crush Russia [sic] like an egg.”)[11]

The German attack started on June 22, 1941, in the early hours of the morning. Three million German soldiers and almost 700,000 allies of Nazi Germany crossed the border, and their equipment consisted of 600,000 motor vehicles, 3,648 tanks, more than 2.700 planes, and just over 7,000 pieces of artillery.[12] At first, everything went according to the plan. Huge holes were punched in the Soviet defences, impressive territorial gains were made rapidly, and hundreds of thousands of Red Army soldiers were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner in a number of spectacular “encirclement battles” (Kesselschlachten). After one such battle, fought in the vicinity of Smolensk towards the end of July, the road to Moscow seemed to lay open.

However, all too soon it became evident that the Blitzkrieg in the east would not be the cakewalk that had been expected. Facing the most powerful military machine on earth, the Red Army predictably took a major beating but, as Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels confided to his diary as early as July 2, also put up a tough resistance and hit back pretty hard on more than one occasion. General Franz Halder, in many ways the “godfather” of Operation Barbarossa’s plan of attack, acknowledged that Soviet resistance was much tougher than anything the Germans had faced in Western Europe. Wehrmacht reports cited “hard,” “tough,” even “wild” resistance, causing heavy losses in men and equipment on the German side.[13] More often than expected, Soviet forces managed to launch counter-attacks that slowed down the German advance. Some Soviet units went into hiding in the vast Pripet Marshes and elsewhere, organized deadly partisan warfare, and threatened the long and vulnerable German lines of communication.[14] It also turned out that the Red Army was much better equipped than expected. German generals were “amazed,” writes a German historian, by the quality of Soviet weapons such as the Katyusha rocket launcher (a.k.a. “Stalin Organ”) and the T-34 tank. Hitler was furious that his secret services had not been aware of the existence of some of this weaponry.[15]

The greatest cause of concern, as far as the Germans were concerned, was the fact that the bulk of the Red Army managed to withdraw in relatively good order and eluded destruction in a major Kesselschlacht, the kind of repeat of Cannae or Sedan that Hitler and his generals had dreamed of. The Soviets appeared to have carefully observed and analyzed the German Blitzkrieg successes of 1939 and 1940 and to have learned useful lessons. They must have noticed that in May 1940 the French had massed their forces right at the border as well as in Belgium, thus making it possible for the German war machine to encircle them in a major Kesselschlacht. (British troops were also caught in this encirclement, but managed to escape via Dunkirk.) The Soviets did leave some troops at the border, of course, and these troops predictably suffered the Soviet Union’s major losses during the opening stages of Barbarossa. But – contrary to what is claimed by historians such as Richard Overy[16] – the bulk of the Red Army was held back in the rear, avoiding entrapment. It was this “defence in depth” that frustrated the German ambition to destroy the Red Army in its entirety. As Marshal Zhukov was to write in his memoirs, “the Soviet Union would have been smashed if we had organized all our forces at the border.”[17]

By the middle of July, as Hitler’s war in the east started to lose its Blitz-qualities, some German leaders started to voice great concern. Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, head of the Wehrmacht’s secret service, the Abwehr, for example, confided on July 17 to a colleague on the front, General von Bock, that he saw “nothing but black.” On the home front, many German civilians also started to feel that the war in the east was not going well. In Dresden, Victor Klemperer wrote in his diary on July 13: “We suffer immense losses, we have underestimated the Russians…”[18] Around the same time Hitler himself abandoned his belief in a quick and easy victory and scaled down his expectations; he now expressed the hope that his troops might reach the Volga by October and capture the oil fields of the Caucasus a month or so later.[19] By the end of August, at a time when Barbarossa should have been winding down, a memorandum of the Wehrmacht’s High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, OKW) acknowledged that it might no longer be possible to win the war in 1941.[20]

A major problem was the fact that, when Barbarossa started on June 22, the available supplies of fuel, tires, spare parts etc., were only good enough for about two months. This had been deemed sufficient, because it was expected that within two months the Soviet Union would be on its knees and its unlimited resources – industrial products as well as raw materials – would therefore be available to the Germans.[21] However, by late August the German spearheads were nowhere near those distant regions of the Soviet Union where oil, that most precious of all martial commodities, was to be had. If the tanks managed to keep on rolling, though increasingly slowly, into the seemingly endless Russian and Ukrainian expanses, it was to a large extent by means of fuel and rubber imported, via Spain and occupied France, from the US. The American share of Germany’s imports of vitally important oil for engine lubrication (Motorenöl), for example, increased rapidly during the summer of 1941, namely, from 44 per cent in July to no less than 94 per cent in September.[22]

The flames of optimism flared up again in September, when German troops captured Kiev, bagging 650,000 prisoners, and, further north, made progress in the direction of Moscow. Hitler believed, or at least pretended to believe, that the end was now near for the Soviets. In a public speech in the Berlin Sportpalast on October 3, he declared that the eastern war was virtually over. And the Wehrmacht was ordered to deliver the coup de grace by launching Operation Typhoon (Unternehmen Taifun), an offensive aimed at taking Moscow. However, the odds for success looked increasingly slim, as the Soviets were busily bringing in reserve units from the Far East. (They had been informed by their master spy in Tokyo, Richard Sorge, that the Japanese, whose army was stationed in northern China, were no longer considering to attack the Soviets’ vulnerable borders in the Vladivostok area.) To make things worse, the Germans no longer enjoyed superiority in the air, particularly over Moscow. Also, insufficient supplies of ammunition and food could be brought up from the rear to the front, since the long supply lines were severely hampered by partisan activity.[23] Finally, it was getting chilly in the Soviet Union, though no colder than usual at that time of the year. But the German high command, confident that their eastern Blitzkrieg would be over by the end of the summer, had failed to supply the troops with the equipment necessary to fight in the rain, mud, snow, and freezing temperatures of a Russian fall and winter.

Taking Moscow loomed as an extremely important objective in the minds of Hitler and his generals. It was believed, though wrongly, that the fall of Moscow would “decapitate” the Soviet Union and thus bring about its collapse. It also seemed important to avoid a repeat of the scenario of the summer of 1914, when the seemingly unstoppable German advance had been halted in extremis on the eastern outskirts of Paris, during the Battle of the Marne. This disaster -from the German perspective – had robbed Germany of nearly certain victory in the opening stages of the “Great War” and had forced it into a long, drawn-out struggle that, lacking sufficient resources and blockaded by the British Navy, it was doomed to lose. This time, in a new Great War, fought against a new archenemy, the Soviet Union, there was to be no “Miracle of the Marne,” that is, no defeat just outside the capital, and Germany would therefore not again have to fight, resourceless and blockaded, a long, drawn out conflict it would be doomed to lose. Unlike Paris, Moscow would fall, history would not repeat itself, and Germany would end up being victorious.[24] Or so they hoped in Hitler’s headquarters.

The Wehrmacht continued to advance, albeit very slowly, and by mid-November some units found themselves at only 30 kilometers from the capital. But the troops were now totally exhausted, and running out of supplies. Their commanders knew that it was simply impossible to take Moscow, tantalizingly close as the city may have been, and that even doing so would not bring them victory. On December 3, a number of units abandoned the offensive on their own initiative. Within days, however, the entire German army in front of Moscow was simply forced on the defensive. Indeed, on December 5, at 3 in the morning, in cold and snowy conditions, the Red Army suddenly launched a major, well-prepared counter-attack. The Wehrmacht’s lines were pierced in many places, and the Germans were thrown back between 100 and 280 km with heavy losses of men and equipment. It was only with great difficulty that a catastrophic encirclement (Einkesselung) could be avoided. On December 8, Hitler ordered his army to abandon the offensive and to move into defensive positions. He blamed this setback on the supposedly unexpectedly early arrival of winter, refused to pull back further to the rear, as some of his generals suggested, and proposed to attack again in the spring.[25]

Thus ended Hitler’s Blitzkrieg against the Soviet Union, the war that, had it been victorious, would have realized the great ambition of his life, the destruction of the Soviet Union. More importantly, at least from our present perspective, such a victory would also have provided Nazi Germany with sufficient oil and other resources to make it a virtually invulnerable world power. As such, Nazi Germany would very likely have been capable of finishing off stubborn Great Britain, even if the US would have rushed to help its Anglo-Saxon cousin, which, incidentally, was not yet in the cards in early December of 1941. A Blitzsieg, that is, a rapid victory against the Soviet Union, then, was supposed to have made a German defeat impossible, and would in all likelihood have done so. (It is probably fair to say that if Nazi Germany would have defeated the Soviet Union in 1941, Germany would today still be the hegemon of Europe, and possibly of the Middle East and North Africa as well.) However, defeat in the Battle of Moscow in December 1941 meant that Hitler’s Blitzkrieg did not produce the hoped-for Blitzsieg. In the new “Battle of the Marne” just to the west of Moscow, Nazi Germany suffered the defeat that made victory impossible, not only victory against the Soviet Union itself, but also victory against Great Britain, victory in the war in general.

Bearing in mind the lessons of World War I, Hitler and his generals had known from the start that, in order to win the new “Great War” they had unleashed, Germany had to win fast, lightning-fast. But on December 5, 1941, it became evident to everyone present in Hitler’s headquarters that a Blitzsieg against the Soviet Union would not be forthcoming, so that Germany was doomed to lose the war, if not sooner, then later. According to General Alfred Jodl, Chief of the Operations Staff of the OKW, Hitler then realized that he could no longer win the war.[26] And so it can be argued that the tide of World War II turned on December 5, 1941. However, as real tides do not turn suddenly, but gradually and imperceptibly, the tide of the war also turned not on one single day, but over a period of days, weeks, even months, namely in the period of approximately three months that elapsed between the late summer of 1941 and early December of that same year.

The tide of the war in the east turned gradually, but it did not do so imperceptibly. Already in August 1941, as the German successes failed to bring about a Soviet capitulation and the Wehrmacht’s advance slowed down considerably, astute observers started to doubt that a German victory, not only in the Soviet Union but in the war in general, still belonged to the realm of possibilities. The well-informed Vatican, for example, initially very enthusiastic about Hitler’s “crusade” against the Soviet homeland of “godless” Bolshevism and confident that the Soviets would collapse immediately, started to express grave concerns about the situation in the east in late summer 1941; by mid-October, it was to come to the conclusion that Germany would lose the war.[27] Likewise in mid-October, the Swiss secret services reported that “the Germans can no longer win the war”; that conclusion was based on information gathered in Sweden from statements by visiting German officers.[28] By late November, a defeatism of sorts had started to infect the higher ranks of the Wehrmacht and of the Nazi Party. Even as they were urging their troops forward towards Moscow, some generals opined that it would be preferable to make peace overtures and wind down the war without achieving the great victory that had seemed so certain at the start of Operation Barbarossa. And shortly before the end of November, Armament Minister Fritz Todt asked Hitler to find a diplomatic way out of the war, since purely militarily as well as industrially it was as good as lost.[29]

When the Red Army launched its devastating counteroffensive on December 5, Hitler himself realized that he would lose the war. But of course he was not prepared to let the German public know that. The nasty tidings from the front near Moscow were presented to the public as a temporary setback, blamed on the supposedly unexpectedly early arrival of winter and/or on the incompetence or cowardice of certain commanders. (It was only a good year later, after the catastrophic defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad during the winter of 1942-1943, that the German public, and the entire world, would realize that Germany was doomed; this is why even today many historians believe that the tide turned in Stalingrad .) Even so, it proved impossible to keep the catastrophic implications of the debacle in front of Moscow a total secret. For example, on December 19, 1941, the German Consul in Basel reported to his superiors in Berlin that the (openly pro-Nazi) head of a mission of the Swiss Red Cross, sent to the front in the Soviet Union to assist only the wounded on the German side, which of course contravened Red Cross rules, had returned to Switzerland with the news, most surprising to the Consul, that “he no longer believed that Germany could win the war.”[30]

December 7. 1941. In his headquarters deep in the forests of East Prussia, Hitler had not yet fully digested the ominous news of the Soviet counter-offensive in front of Moscow, when he learned that, on the other side of the world, the Japanese had attacked the Americans at Pearl Harbour. This caused the US to declare war on Japan, but not on Germany, which had nothing to do with the attack and had not even been aware of the Japanese plans. Hitler had no obligation whatsoever to rush to the aid of his Japanese friends, as is claimed by many American historians, but on December 11, 1941 – four days after Pearl Harbor – he declared war on the US. This seemingly irrational decision must be understood in light of the German predicament in the Soviet Union. Hitler almost certainly speculated that this entirely gratuitous gesture of solidarity would induce his Eastern ally to reciprocate with a declaration of war on the enemy of Germany, the Soviet Union, and this would have forced the Soviets into the extremely perilous predicament of a two-front war. Hitler appears to have believed that he could exorcize the spectre of defeat in the Soviet Union, and in the war in general, by summoning a sort of Japanese deus ex machina to the Soviet Union’s vulnerable Siberian frontier. According to the German historian Hans W. Gatzke, the Führer was convinced that “if Germany failed to join Japan [in the war against the United States], it would…end all hope for Japanese help against the Soviet Union.” But Japan did not take Hitler’s bait. Tokyo, too, despised the Soviet state, but the land of the rising sun, now at war against the US, could afford the luxury of a two-front war as little as the Soviets, and preferred to put all of its money on a “southern” strategy, hoping to win the big prize of Southeast Asia – including oil-rich Indonesia! -, rather than embark on a venture in the inhospitable reaches of Siberia. Only at the very end of the war, after the surrender of Nazi Germany, would it come to hostilities between the Soviet Union and Japan. [31]

And so, because of Hitler’s own fault, the camp of Germany’s enemies now included not only Great Britain and the Soviet Union, but also the mighty USA, whose troops could be expected to appear on Germany’s shores, or at least on the shores of German-occupied Europe, in the foreseeable future. The Americans would indeed land troops in France, but only in 1944, and this unquestionably important event is still often presented as the turning point of World War II. However, one should ask if the Americans would ever have landed in Normandy or, for that matter, ever have declared war on Nazi Germany, if Hitler had not declared war on them on December 11, 1941; and one should ask if Hitler would ever have made the desperate, even suicidal, decision to declare war on the US if he had not found himself in a hopeless situation in the Soviet Union. The involvement of the US in the war against Germany, then, which for many reasons was not “in the cards” before December 1941, was also a consequence of the German setback in front of Moscow. Obviously, this constitutes yet another fact that may be cited in support of the claim that “the tide turned” in the Soviet Union in the fall and early winter of 1941.

Nazi Germany was doomed, but the war was still to be long one. Hitler ignored the advice of his generals, who strongly recommend trying to find a diplomatic way out of the war, and decided to battle on in the slim hope of somehow pulling victory out of a hat. The Russian counter-offensive would run out of steam, the Wehrmacht would survive the winter of 1941-1942, and in the spring of 1942 Hitler would scrape together all available forces for an offensive – code-named “Operation Blue” (Unternehmen Blau) – in the direction of the oil fields of the Caucasus – via Stalingrad. Hitler himself acknowledged that, “if he did not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny, then he would have to end this war.”[32] However, the element of surprise had been lost, and the Soviets proved to dispose of huge masses of men, oil, and other resources, as well as excellent equipment, much of it produced in factories that had been established behind the Urals between 1939 and 1941. The Wehrmacht, on the other hand, could not compensate for the huge losses it had suffered in 1941. Between June 22, 1941, and January 31, 1942, the Germans had lost 6,000 airplanes and more than 3,200 tanks and similar vehicles; and no less than 918,000 men had been killed, wounded, or gone missing in action, amounting to 28,7 percent of the average strength of the army, namely, 3,2 million men.[33] (In the Soviet Union, Germany would lose no less than 10 million of its total 13.5 million men killed, wounded, or taken prisoner during the entire war; and the Red Army would end up claiming credit for 90 per cent of all Germans killed in the Second World War.)[34] The forces available for a push towards the oil fields of the Caucasus were therefore extremely limited. Under those circumstances, it is quite remarkable that in 1942 the Germans managed to make it as far as they did. But when their offensive inevitably petered out, namely in September of that year, their weakly held lines were stretched along many hundreds of kilometers, presenting a perfect target for a Soviet attack. When that attack came, it caused an entire German army to be bottled up, and ultimately to be destroyed, in Stalingrad. It was after this great victory of the Red Army that the ineluctability of German defeat in World War II would be obvious for all to see. However, the seemingly minor and relatively unheralded German defeat in front of Moscow in late 1941 had been the precondition for the admittedly more spectacular and more “visible” German defeat at Stalingrad.

There are even more reasons to proclaim December 1941 as the turning point of the war. The Soviet counter-offensive destroyed the reputation of invincibility in which the Wehrmacht had basked ever since its success against Poland in 1939, thus boosting the morale of Germany’s enemies everywhere. The Battle of Moscow also ensured that the bulk of Germany’s armed forces would be tied to an eastern front of approximately 4,000 km for an indefinite period of time, which all but eliminated the possibility of German operations against Gibraltar, for example, and thus provided tremendous relief to the British. Conversely, the failure of the Blitzkrieg demoralized the Fins and other German allies. And so forth…

It was in front of Moscow, in December 1941, that the tide turned, because it was there that the Blitzkrieg failed and that Nazi Germany was consequently forced to fight, without sufficient resources, the kind of long, drawn-out war that Hitler and his generals knew they could not possibly win.

Jacques R. Pauwels, author of The Myth of the Good War: America in the Second World War, James Lorimer, Toronto, 2002.

Notes

[1] Gerd R. Ueberschär, „Das Scheitern des ‚Unternehmens Barbarossa‘“, in Gerd R. Ueberschär and Wolfram Wette (eds.), Der deutsche Überfall auf die Sowjetunion: “Unternehmen Barbarossa” 1941, Frankfurt am Main, 2011, p. 120.

[2] Rolf-Dieter Müller, Der Feind steht im Osten: Hitlers geheime Pläne für einen Krieg gegen die Sowjetunion im Jahr 1939, Berlin, 2011.

[3] Cited in Müller, op. cit., p. 152.

[4] Jacques R. Pauwels, The Myth of the Good War: America in the Second World War, James Lorimer, Toronto, 2002, pp. 33, 37.

[5] Lieven Soete, Het Sovjet-Duitse niet-aanvalspact van 23 augustus 1939: Politieke Zeden in het Interbellum, Berchem [Antwerp], Belgium, 1989, pp. 289-290, including footnote 1 on p. 289.

[6] See e.g. Gerd R. Ueberschär, “Hitlers Entschluß zum ‘Lebensraum’-Krieg im Osten: Programmatisches Ziel oder militärstrategisches Kalkül?,” in Gerd R. Ueberschär and Wolfram Wette (eds.), Der deutsche Überfall auf die Sowjetunion: “Unternehmen Barbarossa” 1941, Frankfurt am Main, 2011, p. 39.

[7] Müller, op. cit., p. 169.

[8] Ueberschär, “Das Scheitern…,” p. 95.

[9] Müller, op. cit., pp. 209, 225.

[10] Ueberschär, “Hitlers Entschluß…”, p. 15.

[11] Pauwels, op. cit., p. 62; Ueberschär, „Das Scheitern…,“ pp. 95-96; Domenico Losurdo, Stalin: Storia e critica di una leggenda nera, Rome, 2008, p. 29.

[12] Müller, op. cit., p. 243.

[13] Richard Overy, Russia’s War, London, 1997, p. 87.

[14] Ueberschär, “Das Scheitern…“, pp. 97-98.

[15] Ueberschär, “Das Scheitern…“, p. 97; Losurdo, op. cit., p. 31.

[16] Overy, op. cit., pp. 64-65.

[17] Grover Furr, Khrushchev Lied : The Evidence That Every ‘Revelation’ of Stalin’s (and Beria’s) ‘Crimes’ in Nikita Khrushchev’s Infamous ‘Secret Speech’ to the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on February 25, 1956, is Provably False, Kettering/Ohio, 2010, p. 343: Losurdo, op. cit., p. 31; Soete, op. cit., p. 297.

[18] Losurdo, op. cit., pp. 31-32.

[19] Bernd Wegner, “Hitlers zweiter Feldzug gegen die Sowjetunion: Strategische Grundlagen und historische Bedeutung“, in Wolfgang Michalka (ed.), Der Zweite Weltkrieg: Analysen – Grundzüge – Forschungsbilanz, München and Zurich, 1989, p. 653.

[20] Ueberschär, “Das Scheitern…“, p. 100.

[21] Müller, op. cit., p. 233.

[22] Tobias Jersak, “Öl für den Führer,“ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, February 11, 1999. Jersak used a “top secret” document produced by the Wehrmacht Reichsstelle für Mineralöl, now in the military section of the Bundesarchiv (Federal Archives), file RW 19/2694.

[23] Ueberschär, “Das Scheitern…“, pp. 99-102, 106-107.

[24] Ueberschär, “Das Scheitern…“, p. 106.

[25] Ueberschär, “Das Scheitern…,” pp. 107-111; Geoffrey Roberts, Stalin`s Wars from World War to Cold War, 1939-1953, New Haven/CT and London, 2006, p. 111.

[26] Andreas Hillgruber (ed.), Der Zweite Weltkrieg 1939–1945: Kriegsziele und Strategie der Grossen Mächte, fifth edition, Stuttgart, 1989, p. 81.

[27] Annie Lacroix-Riz, Le Vatican, l’Europe et le Reich de la Première Guerre mondiale à la guerre froide, Paris, 1996, p. 417.

[28] Daniel Bourgeois, Business helvétique et troisième Reich : Milieux d’affaires, politique étrangère, antisémitisme, Lausanne, 1998, pp. 123, 127.

[29] Ueberschär, “Das Scheitern…“, pp. 107-108.

[30] Bourgeois, op. cit., pp. 123, 127.

[31] Pauwels, op. cit., pp. 68-69; quotation from Hans W. Gatzke, Germany and the United States: A “Special Relationship?,” Cambridge/MA, and London, 1980, p. 137.

[32] Wegner, op. cit., pp. 654-656.

[33] Ueberschär, “Das Scheitern…,” p. 116.

[34] Clive Ponting, Armageddon: The Second World War, London, 1995, p. 130; Stephen E. Ambrose Americans at War, New York, 1998, p. 72.

Jacques R. Pauwels is a frequent contributor to Global Research.  Global Research Articles by Jacques R. Pauwels

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Muslim World Agenda & News Sept 29/11

Posted by Admin on September 30, 2011

http://www.galacticfriends.com/updates/truth-and-growth-education/5789-muslim-world-agenda-a-news-sept-2911.html

Muslim World Agenda & News Sept 29/11

Chancellor Angela Merkel said that Germans have failed to grasp how Muslim immigration has transformed their country and will have to come to terms with more mosques than churches throughout the countryside, according to the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung daily. “Our country is going to carry on changing, and integration is also a task for the society taking up the task of dealing with immigrants,” Ms. Merkel told the daily newspaper. “For years we’ve been deceiving ourselves about this. Mosques, for example, are going to be a more prominent part of our cities than they were before.”

Germany, with a population of 4-5 million Muslims, has been divided in recent weeks  by a debate Over remarks by the Bundesbank’s Thilo Sarrazin, who argued Turkish and Arab immigrants were failing to integrate and were swamping Germany with a higher birth rate.

The Chancellor’s remarks represent the first official acknowledgement that Germany ,like other European countries, is destined to become a stronghold of Islam. She has admitted that the country will soon become a stronghold. In France , 30% of children age 20 years and below are Muslims. The ratio in Paris and Marseille has soared to 45%. In southern France , there are more mosques than churches.

The situation within the United Kingdom is not much different. In the last 30 years, the Muslim population there has climbed from 82,000 to 2.5 million. Presently, there are over 1000 mosques throughout Great Britain – many of which were converted from churches.

In Belgium , 50% of the newborns are Muslims and reportedly its Islamic population hovers around 25%. A similar statistic holds true for The Netherlands. It’s the same story in Russia where one in five inhabitants is a Muslim.

Muammar Gaddafi recently stated that “There are signs that Allah will grant victory to Islam in Europe without a sword, without a gun, without conquest. We don’t need terrorists; we don’t need homicide bombers. The 50 plus million Muslims (in Europe )will turn it into the Muslim Continent within a few decades.” The numbers support him.

I think the Muslims are smarter than the Europeans. Muslims will reproduce like rabbits but the Islamic Countries do not need to feed the Muslims.  Send them to European Countries and let the Europeans feed them and bring them up.  Now who is “smarter”??  . (Folks the Asians have a similar agenda . Each country has the responsibility to take care of there own citizens and economies fairly they should not be allowed to impose and burden other countries with there citizens. It is a legal and moral responsibility of each countries governments to protect there own economic stability by honouring there own citizens first and for most and not allow foreign influences to hold sway in any way over our sovereignty especially dark ET Religious programming treachery Tami)

It is odious treachery that brought them to other countries so it is our responsibility to deport any and all threats to our sovereignty way of life and health and safety of our present and future societies. I have been told that most immigration policies like the banking agenda has been based on fraud and criminality so most immigrants will be deported back to there countries of origin. I am not against other cultures I am against willful attempts to undermine sovereignty of countries and destroy there way of life and economies! Tami

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WHO: Time running out to solve E. coli outbreak

Posted by Admin on June 7, 2011

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110607/ap_on_he_me/eu_contaminated_vegetables_investigation;_ylt=AmPpLvgL3mF190QkHr7fysNvaA8F;_ylu=X3oDMTNkdmRvMjJiBGFzc2V0A2FwLzIwMTEwNjA3L2V1X2NvbnRhbWluYXRlZF92ZWdldGFibGVzX2ludmVzdGlnYXRpb24EcG9zAzYEc2VjA3luX2FydGljbGVfc3VtbWFyeV9saXN0BHNsawN3aG90aW1lcnVubmk-

by MARIA CHENG, Associated Press 32 mins ago

LONDON – An expert at the World Health Organization says time is running out for German investigators to find the source of the world’s deadliest E. coli outbreak, which has spread fear across Europe and cost farmers millions in exports.

German officials are still seeking the cause of the outbreak weeks after it began May 2. They wrongly accused Spanish cucumbers of being the culprit last week but had to retract when the cucumbers had a different strain of E. coli. On Sunday, they blamed German sprouts, only to backtrack a day later when initial tests were negative. The sprouts are still being tested.

So far, the outbreak has killed 24 people, infected over 2,400 and left hundreds hospitalized with a serious complication that can lead to kidney failure.

“If we don’t know the likely culprit in a week’s time, we may never know the cause,” Dr. Guenael Rodier, the director of communicable diseases at WHO, told The Associated Press in an interview Tuesday.

He said the contaminated vegetables have likely disappeared from the market and it would be difficult for German investigators to link patients to contaminated produce weeks after they first became infected.

“Right now, (Germans) are interviewing patients about foods they ate one to two weeks ago,” he said. “It’s very hard to know how accurate that information is.”

Without more details about what exact foods link sick patients, Rodier said it would be very difficult to narrow down the cause.

“The final proof will come from the lab,” he said. “But first you need the epidemiological link to the suspected food.”

Other experts issued harsher criticism of the German investigation.

“If you gave us 200 cases and 5 days, we should be able to solve this outbreak,” said Michael Osterholm, director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota, whose team has contained numerous food-borne outbreaks in the United States.

Osterholm described the German effort as “erratic” and “a disaster” and said officials should have done more detailed patient interviews as soon as the epidemic began.

The medical director of Berlin’s Charite Hospitals, Ulrich Frei, said it took the national disease control center weeks to send his hospital questionnaires for E. coli patients to fill out about their eating habits.

Osterholm said the Germans should have been able to trace cases of illness to infected produce by now and that tests on current produce won’t be helpful.

“It’s like looking at camera footage of a traffic intersection today to see what caused an accident three weeks ago,” he said.

“This is an outbreak response that is not being led by the data,” he added. “Solving an outbreak like this is difficult, but it’s not an impossible task.”

On Tuesday, the EU health chief warned Germany against issuing any more premature — and inaccurate — conclusions about the source of contaminated food. The comments by EU health chief John Dalli came only a day after he had defended the German investigators, saying they were under extreme pressure.

Dalli told the EU parliament in Strasbourg that information must be scientifically sound and foolproof before it becomes public.

“It is crucial that national authorities do not rush to give information on the source of infection that is not proven by bacteriological analysis, as this spreads unjustified fears (among) the population all over Europe and creates problems for our food producers,” Dalli said.

In outbreaks, it is not unusual for certain foods to be suspected at first, then ruled out. In 2008 in the U.S., raw tomatoes were initially implicated in a nationwide salmonella outbreak. Consumers shunned tomatoes, costing the tomato industry millions. Weeks later, jalapeno peppers grown in Mexico were found to be the cause.

In the current E. coli outbreak, tests are continuing on sprouts from an organic farm in northern Germany, but have so far come back negative. Rodier said that doesn’t necessarily exonerate the vegetables.

“Just because tests are negative doesn’t mean you can rule them out,” he said. “The bacteria could have been in just one batch of contaminated food and by the time you collect specimens from the samples that are left, it could be gone.”

He said food-borne outbreaks are difficult to investigate because they involve multiple industries, government departments and in Germany’s case, several layers of bureaucracy to report numbers.

In Luxembourg, a heated battle erupted Tuesday over compensation payments to European farmers blindsided by plunging demand during the deadly E. coli outbreak, with Spain and France scoffing at the amount proposed by the EU farm chief.

Farm Commissioner Dacian Ciolos suggested the European Union give farmers euro150 million ($219 million) in compensation — about 30 percent of the value of vegetables that cannot be sold.

But Spain and France, traditional vegetable producers, insisted that is not even close to enough, aiming for aid to farmers between 90 percent and 100 percent of the market price for their produce.

The losses to EU farmers have been staggering — in the neighborhood of euro417 million ($611 million) a week.

Germany’s national disease control center, the Robert Koch Institute, on Tuesday raised the number deaths to 24 — 23 in Germany and one in Sweden — and the number of infections in Germany to 2,325. The number of victims with a rare complication that may lead to kidney failure rose by 12 to 642.

Ten other European countries and the United States have another 100 cases.

The institute said the number of new cases had declined — a sign the epidemic might have reached its peak — but added it was not certain whether that decrease will continue.

In a major difference from other E. coli outbreaks, the crisis is mostly affecting women. Most of the victims in Germany are women between 20 and 50 years old, highly educated and very fit, investigators said.

“What do they have in common? They are thin, clean pictures of health,” said Friedrich Hagenmueller of the Asklepios Hospital in Hamburg, Germany.

___

David Rising in Hamburg, Raf Casert in Brussels and Juergen Baetz in Berlin contributed to this report.

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DEMOCRACY IN 19TH CENTURY WESTERN EUROPE

Posted by Admin on January 30, 2011

“How democratic were France, Germany and Britain by 1900?”

Table of contents:

Part I: Summary;

Part II: Outline;

Part III: Limitation of this study;

Part IV: Democracy in France;

Part V: Democracy in Germany;

Part VI: Democracy in Britain;

Part VII: Conclusion.

Part I:

Summary: Just over a century ago, the kind of government that existed in these frontline western European states was a far cry from what is seen today. The political earthquake called the French Revolution had its epicentre in France, but its rumblings were felt through most of the continent, as well as in faraway colonies, leaving the politics of most European countries in a state of flux. But the intended harvest of this revolution, an obliteration of monarchy and the rule of law, the indispensable elements of a democracy, took its time to get ingrained in the political systems of these countries, and evolved as a form of government very differently in each of the three countries taken up in this paper. If the advent of Napoleon affected these three countries, and the Vienna Congress stunted France and Germany’s graduation to democracy, the internal political dynamics in all these countries were different from each other’s. In Britain, whose brand of democracy was mixed, the Reform Acts turned out to be milestones on the road to democracy. Such serious and well-intended steps to democracy were not taken in the other two countries. This is mainly because France kept seesawing between monarchy and autocracy through most of the 19th century, while Germany was a disparate state for most of that century. In sum, in Britain, by the end of the 19th century, a parliamentary democracy, which the nation had been having for a long time, was fairly well established, although under a monarchy. The same was not the case with the other two; in all, Germany enjoyed the least democracy. The reasons for this discrepancy form the backbone of this paper.

Part II:

Outline: This paper takes up separately the extent to which democracy was ushered in into these three countries. In each of these cases, a narration is made of how democracy developed. Since the nature of this paper is analytical, too much detail is not made of this aspect; this explanation is given only to reinforce the thesis question. The starting point for the evolution of democracy in each of these countries is taken up separately. This is for the simple reason that while the French Revolution happened in France, such an event did not take place in the other two countries. For these, appropriate historically important dates or events are taken up.

Part III:

Limitation of this study: While 1789 may be termed a signal event for modern democracy, no event of such importance concerning democracy happened in 1900, the cut off date for this paper. However, since this is the period up to which this paper is concerned, it restricts itself to developments in most parts of the 19th century, in which the major themes were unification for Germany, political uncertainty for France, and the reform of the parliamentary system in the Victorian Era for Britain.

Part IV:

Democracy in France:

France was home to one of the watershed political events of modern Europe, the French Revolution, in which the people rose in revolt with the slogan, war to the châteaux, peace to the cottages. The gravity and repercussions of this event are far too great to bear banal repetition; however, while the essential aim of the Revolution was to bring an end to the autocratic and inept regimes that misruled the nation, (Frey & Frey, 2004, p. 57) the result it sought to instil, democracy, did not have a smooth inception or development, either, suffering from several long and enduring birth pangs.

Strangely, for most part of the 19th century, it seemed as if the great revolution had turned out to be no more than an isolated, standalone event. The dividend the Revolution sought to pay, democracy, had to wait for a seemingly interminable period of time to fructify and get implanted in the nation’s political system, because the succession of governments it brought were anything but democratic. Leading political figures of the day, such as Robespierre feared that the system the revolution put in place was one which had a penchant for forgetting “the interests of the people”, would “lapse into the hands of corrupt individuals”, and worst of all, “reestablish the old tyranny” (Cohen, 1997, p. 130) Later decades showed that his prognosis was not far off the mark.

The decades following the Revolution saw a chain of events, none of which took the country anywhere near democracy, the avowed aim of the Revolution. The years from the Revolution to the Franco-Prussian War saw political fissures of one or another kind, which had no semblance of democracy, starting with the ascent of Napoleon, perhaps the most powerful dictator the country had ever produced. His defeat was followed by the Restoration of the monarchy; this gave rise to the Revolution of 1830, and the rule of Louis Philippe, till 1848. It took another revolution to bring down his regime, this time in 1848. Finally, this heralded the era of the Second Republic, and the tenure of the fickle Napoleon III, leading to another event of seminal importance for the nation, the Franco-Prussian war, to be followed by yet another Republic, the Third. (Haine, 2000, p. 97) This regime, too heavily weighed down by palace intrigues, scandals, wars and renewed national pride in the wake of a highly recharged and resurgent neighbour, Prussia, (Wright, 1916, pp. 2-4) was left with little room or time for democracy. Nothing of import happened in the period till the end of the 19th century to necessitate the emergence of a democracy.

Part V:

Democracy in Germany:

Germany’s tryst with democracy in the 19th century needs to be seen in circumstances that were peculiar and unique to the nation’s history. This was when the German people united as a nation for the first time.  They had been a loosely knit confederation of princely states that owed its allegiance to the Holy Roman Empire by the time of the French Revolution; yet, in about a century of this event, they had been cobbled together almost magically under the Prussian banner. A series of moves replete with uninhibited daredevilry, gamble, deceit and sheer diplomatic astuteness on the part of its Chancellor, Otto Von Bismarck had united the German people, ridding them of the yoke of Austrian domination of its peoples. (Snell, 1976, pp. 3, 4) However, Germany had only been united, resulting in the realisation of a long-lasting and cherished dream of a German nation; this did not in any way mean that a democracy had been put in place. The arrangements the Congress of Vienna made for Europe in 1815 undid Bismarck’s work, setting the clock back on democracy. Even so, the newly-knit entity did not have the prerequisite groundwork for democracy, suffering from a basic flaw –it “was constructed by its princes, not by its people. That important fact distinguished Germany from nations like England, France, and the United States, where the constitutions were designed “with the consent of the governed.” The German Empire was a federation of sovereign states, its constitution created by a treaty among the hereditary rulers of those states. The “wars of unification” were not revolutionary popular movements; they were narrowly focused international conflicts designed by Bismarck to help Prussia eliminate Austrian power within Germany and to create a new Prussian-led German nation within Europe.”  (Turk, 1999, pp. xvii-null22) Whatever spattering of democracy the nation had towards the fag end of the century was limited to social democracy, in which it was confined to labour unions. (Berghahn, 1994, p. 160)

Part VI:

Democracy in Britain: The year 1815 is considered a benchmark for the politics of Britain, as it was for several other European countries, for the simple reason that this year saw the end of the power and influence of one of the greatest nemeses it ever saw, Napoleon. However, while this was the major issue for the nation externally, Britain had its share of internal problems, as well, during this century. The Industrial Revolution brought in its wake dramatic changes which the nation had to ingest, with both the promises and the pitfalls it spawned. Among the most important social effects the Industrial Revolution had on the nation was a near-explosion in population, and the drawbacks of nascent industrialisation, at which it had no forerunners from any part of the world. Thus, the greatest priority at that time was a set of policies that gave the country social solidity and some element of peace. (McCord, 1991, p. 1) With the high rates of population growth and their attendant problems such as high infant mortality being great priorities during the early part of the 19th century, (Brown, 1991, p. 30) the air of politics was abuzz with the question of which of the institutions the British had so assiduously built up over the previous centuries was best suited to give coherence to the society that was changing at a feverish pace. In this milieu, the emphasis for British politics was more over what kind of reform was suited and needed for the society, polity and the economy, rather than which form of government was best suited to carry these changes out. Opinion was sharply divided among the Conservatives and the Liberals about which of its institutions could carry the day for Britain. The unshakable British faith in the monarchy was as firm as ever, not diluting or eroding even slightly on account of these changes. (Park, 1950, pp. 3-5) In essence, the 19th century, during whose most part Britain was under the rule of one of its longest-reigning monarchs, Queen Victoria, saw the emergence of a peculiarly hybridised, yet often contradictory system of governance. Quintessential democratic institutions, such as the parliament, the judiciary, the cabinet and the local government were alive and well, but functioned under a monarchy. On the one hand, fair and free elections, the ultimate identifier of a democracy, were being held with amazing regularity; on the other, it could not be denied that participation in these elections was limited to the handful of rich and powerful. It was to correct this set of imbalances and to draw more people into the electorate that the Reform Acts were passed. The basic intent of these sets of legislation was the promotion of greater democracy, by drawing the excluded and marginalised sections of society into the electorate. (Pugh, 1999, p. 20) The nation went through three Reform Acts, passed in 1832, 1867 and 1884, whose central aim was increasing the numbers of the electorate. (Hammond & Foot, 1952, pp. 212-214) At about the time these Acts were passed, a parallel social and political reform movement, Chartism, was very active. The basic demand of this radical, unionised movement was greater political participation for the working classes, so that the fruits of the Industrial Revolution percolated down to the labour class, too. (Maccoby, 1935, p. 33) However, in the light of the needs of the day, and the priority these Acts had, they met with little success in actually bringing in democracy to the country. What has been said about the Reform Act of 1832, perhaps holds good for the other Acts, too –that they were “…an excellent example of the British skill of muddling through. An aristocracy muddled through to a democracy, taking many of the aristocratic virtues with them; and they muddled through from an age of privilege to an age of numbers. The democratic implications of the act(s) were not in fact revealed for more than a generation…” (Smellie, 1962, p. 164) As a result, through most of the Victorian Era, although efforts were made haltingly towards bringing in more democracy, there was no more than a sprinkling of democracy; even this happened at the grassroots level, being restricted to the municipal level, as a series of Acts were passed at the local government level. (Harrison, 1996, p. 20)

Part VII:

Conclusion: A study of the thesis question throws up a mixed picture. Overall, democracy, so essential a feature of these countries today, had had to make a bumpy and potholed journey. In all these countries, democracy was nebulous and uncertain in the 19th century, albeit in varying degrees. In Britain, a parliamentary democracy was very much in full bloom, but the inherent love and pride of the British people for their monarchy pre-empted a switch to a full-fledged democratic form of government. As a result, these democratic institutions functioned under a monarchy that controlled the largest empire of the day.

In France, the scene was different. In the absence of democratic institutions of the kind Britain had nurtured, the governance the French Revolution brought about vacillated between various kinds, with the result that democracy took a backseat.

In Germany, the struggles inherent in a newly unified nation, coupled with its naivety in running its newly developing imperialism resulted in too many squabbles and bottlenecks for democracy. The nation that Bismarck had welded together had the ingenuity to only work under a newly consolidated empire, not having been inculcated the necessary mindset for a democracy. It was never going to be easy for these fissiparous peoples to be administered a sudden dose of democracy, as by definition they had been inured to centuries of localism. By the end of that century, democracy was nowhere registered in the average German psyche.

Of all these nations taken up for this study, it can be said that Britain had the highest form of democracy by the end of the 19th century; yet, here too, despite the Reform Acts, which could not be termed a great harbinger of democracy, it was nowhere near what may be termed a pure democracy, something that came so naturally to some of its colonies, principally America.

Written By Ravindra G Rao

 

References

 

Berghahn, V. R., (1994), Imperial Germany, 1871-1914: Economy, Society, Culture, and Politics, Berghahn Books, Providence, RI.

 

Brown, R., (1991), Society and Economy in Modern Britain, 1700-1850, Routledge, New York.

Cohen, P. M., (1997), Freedom’s Moment: An Essay on the French Idea of Liberty from Rousseau to Foucault, University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Frey, L. S., & Frey, M. L. (2004). The French Revolution /, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

 

Haine, W. S., (2000), The History of France (F. W. Thackeray & J. E. Findling, Ed.), Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

 

Hammond, J. L., & Foot, M. R., (1952), Gladstone and Liberalism, English Universities Press, London.

 

Harrison, B., (1996), The Transformation of British Politics, 1860-1995, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

Maccoby, S., (1935), English Radicalism, Allen & Unwin, London.

 

McCord, N., (1991), British History, 1815-1906, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

Park, J. H., (1950), British Prime Ministers of the Nineteenth Century, New York University Press, New York.

 

Pugh, M., (1999), State and Society: A Social and Political History of Britain, 1870-1997, Arnold, London.

 

Smellie, K. B., (1962), Great Britain since 1688: A Modern Histor, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.

 

Snell, J. L., (1976), The Democratic Movement in Germany, 1789-1914 (H. A. Schmitt, Ed.), University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.

Turk, E. L., (1999), The History of Germany, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

 

Wright, C. H., (1916), A History of the Third French Republic, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

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WELTPOLITIK’ AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

Posted by Admin on January 30, 2011

“Describe the development of Germany‘s Weltpolitik after 1890 and its effect on the Anglo-American relations. Discuss the implications for the general development of the great powers system in pre-1914 Europe

Table of contents:

Part I: Introduction;

Part II: Aims and development of Weltpolitik;

Part III: Implications of this policy on Anglo-US Relations;

Part IV: Conclusion:

Implications for the general development of the great powers system in pre-1914 Europe:

______________________________________________________________________

Part I:

Introduction: Weltpolitik was the name given to Germany’s foreign policy in the years following its unification at the hands of Otto Von Bismarck. (Carroll, 1938, p. 351) In terms of genealogy, it simply stood for ‘world policy’, and was the word given to denote Germany’s policy abroad. Historians, however, attach to this word a significance that goes beyond just its terminology. It is used to refer to aggressive German diplomacy between 1890 and 1914, and was closely related to colonial and economic interests. The need for imperialism was felt both to bolster Germany’s new identity, and to supplement its industrial expansion. (Smith, 1978, pp. 174, 175) Like its cousin, imperialism, Weltpolitik, too was based on the ‘Social Darwinism’ model of racial superiority; its essence was postulated on the belief that expansion of its territories in other parts of the globe was the true indicator of the nation’s fitness. (Hale, 1940, p. 155)

Weltpolitik signalled a stark departure from the policy that Bismarck had applied in unifying Germany less than two decades earlier. (Dawson, 1915, p. 131) If Bismarck had used the concept of Realpolitik, a notion by which its relationship with other countries guided not by sentiment but by practical and result-yielding politics based on interests (Anderson, 1969, p. 302) to unify Germany, the feeling that now ran in the German political establishment was that the newly unified power could harness its energies to gain a position of pre-eminence in world affairs. (Knoll & Gann, 1987, pp. 61-63) The leitmotif of the unified Reich was the development of a strong navy and imperialism. These two, obviously, brought the country into direct confrontation with the leading naval and imperial power of the time, Britain. Germany was heavily obsessed in particular with naval power as an instrument for exhibiting its might. Its naval ambitions were inspired by American Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan’s path-breaking work, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, which was catching the imagination of Europe’s leading nations. (Hale, 1940, p. 155)

Part II:
Aims and development of Weltpolitik: The Kaiser’s newfound zeal towards territorial and naval expansion coincided with Britain’s loss of face following its costly and humiliating win in the Boer War, after which it was keen to reassert itself as a great power on the world stage. With his mischievous Kruger Telegram, he virtually solemnised British hostility, when he sent a telegram congratulating Paul Kruger, the Premier of Transvaal in South Africa for his supposed win over the British. (Ludwig, 1927, p. 189)

Ironically, the Kaiser was a professed Anglophile, since the two countries’ ruling families were closely related by marriage. But this mutual admiration was erratic and patchy, and was not strong enough to override his ambitions. (Wilkinson, 2002) The starting point of the concretisation of hostility with Britain was in the year 1897, when the whimsical Kaiser started a programme of upgrading the nation’s navy to heights that would match that of the British. This was when the policies of the Second Reich took a decisive turn towards militarism. The men he appointed to draw up and direct these policies were the Deputy Chief of the General Staff, Count Alfred Waldersee and the better known naval commander, Admiral Von Tirpitz. (Stapleton, 2003) Tirpitz, in particular, convinced the Kaiser of the need to abandon Bismarck’s policy of appeasement of the British navy and instead challenge the world’s most powerful navy head on, (Stapleton, 2003) with his famous dictum, “[w]ithout sea-power, Germany’s position in the world resembled a mollusk without a shell.” (Hale, 1940, p. 156) The Kaiser’s receptivity to these suggestions gave shape to the idea of Weltpolitik, whose aim was also to supplant Britain’s sea power, at least in Europe. (Stapleton, 2003) The Kaiser, once he got converted to this idea, persuaded the German public with highly dramatised and grandiloquent statements. (Dawson, 1915, pp. 134, 135)

However, challenging the British was problematic, since Britain was Germany’s largest trading partner, and her capital was indispensable for the latter’s burgeoning industry. Germany sought to offset these contradictions by building a strong navy and by growing imperially; it was the truculent way in which it sought to carry this out that made Britain turn hostile towards it. (Smith, 1978, p. 177) But it was a little too late in the day that Germany had embarked upon this old idea. Very few areas of the world were left to be colonised; all that it could set its eyes on were some parts of Central Africa and the Pacific Islands. (Smith, 1978, p. 113)

Part III:
Implications of this policy on Anglo-US Relations:  While Germany’s rising imperial ambitions were cause for some alarm for Britain, its naval expansion started happening at a time when another distant nation was taking giant strides towards becoming the world’s leading naval power –America. The US, by the late 19th century was trying to come out of its self-imposed isolationism and was beginning to flex its muscle on the international stage. This period was the beginning of American ascendancy on the world; it, too, like Germany, sought to develop a strong navy as the chief mechanism to achieve its aim. As America was growing in the western hemisphere to challenge Britain’s naval superiority, an episode showed the taste of things to come – the crisis with Britain over the small issue of the border dispute between Venezuela and British Guinea. The Americans intervened and settled the issue with utmost ease, and mocked Britain for not having the ability to solve its problem by itself. This incident hurt Britain. However, it had to swallow its pride and not risk going to war with the US on this issue, mainly because of the emergence of Germany under the Kaiser’s Weltpolitik. Because of this German policy, countering its rise was a more urgent priority, and left Britain with little time to concentrate on another continent against a much stronger opponent, in a confrontation whose result it would have been unsure of. In a sense, this was a tacit British admission of the emergence of American naval might. Thus, indirectly, Weltpolitik made Britain restrain itself against America, and acknowledge its potential rise as the leading naval and industrial nation of the world, (Dobson, 1995, pp. 8-20) a position that continues to this day.

Part IV:

Conclusion:

Implications for the general development of the great powers system in pre-1914 Europe: The Kaiser’s fascination with ships was imbibed from a young age; in fact, he had even designed a battleship himself, which performed all functions other than floating! (Wilkinson, 2002) Unfortunately, the damage his obsession caused to Europe and its colonies was not so humorous. To neutralise this new power, Britain entered into alliances with France, with whom it had a history of animosity, and with Russia and Belgium. (Fay, 1958, p. 16) Fearing the prowess of this alliance, Germany, under the Schlieffen Plan, set up Austria-Hungary against Russia, with Italy becoming the other part of the alliance, known as the Triple Alliance. This developed into an all out pattern of alliances, by which action by one country would draw all others. (Bond, 1998, pp. 92-95) Eventually, all it took was the shooting of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria on June 28, 1914 to draw the continent into a spiral of chain reactions culminating in the outbreak of World War I. (Scheff, 1994, p. 83) All of these were a result of the system of alliances, of which the Kaiser’s Weltpolitik was one of the root causes.

 

Written By Ravindra G Rao

References

 

 

Anderson, P. R. (1969), The Background of Anti-English Feeling in Germany, 1890-1902, Octagon Books, New York.

Bond, B., (1998), The Pursuit of Victory: From Napoleon to Saddam Hussein, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Carroll, E. M., (1938), Germany and the Great Powers, 1866-1914: A Study in Public Opinion and Foreign Policy, Prentice-Hall, New York.

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