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Posts Tagged ‘Neptune’

Nine Planets Become 12 with Controversial New Definition

Posted by Admin on December 24, 2011

Update Aug. 17: Astronomers Sharply Divided on New Planet Definition

The tally of planets in our solar system would jump instantly to a dozen under a highly controversial new definition proposed by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).

Eventually there would be hundreds as more round objects are found beyond Neptune.

The proposal, which sources tell SPACE.com is gaining broad support, tries to plug a big gap in astronomy textbooks, which have never had a definition for the word “planet.” It addresses discoveries of Pluto-sized worlds that have in recent years pitched astronomers into heated debates over terminology.

The 12 planets under the newly proposed IAU definition. Planet sizes are shown to scale but their orbital distances are not to scale. CREDIT: IAU/Martin Kornmesser

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Solar System Surprise: A New View of What’s Out There

Posted by Admin on August 12, 2011

http://www.space.com/544-solar-system-surprise-view.html

by Robert Roy Britt, Senior Science Writer
Date: 22 November 2004 Time: 06:24 AM ET
Size comparison between Sedna and other bodies in the Solar System. Image
CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt

A fabled tenth planet out beyond Neptune, often referred to as Planet X, hasn’t been found despite years of searching. But astronomers involved in the hunt are beginning to speculate that something like Planet X will be discovered, along with Y and Z.

In fact, the entire alphabet may not suffice to denote the many worlds circling the Sun.

In an emerging new theoretical view of our corner of the galaxy, several worlds larger than Pluto — a few perhaps as big as Mars — lurk in the outskirts of the solar system. Some are so far away that it would take more than a year, traveling at the speed of light, to reach them.

Wrapping up one search

For years, astronomers have been scouring the Kuiper Belt, a region past Neptune that’s loaded with comet-like objects. The Kuiper Belt extends out to some 5 billion miles (8 billion kilometers) from the Sun. That’s a little more than 50 times the distance between Earth and the Sun, or 50 astronomical units (AU).

Since 1992, more than 800 Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) have been found. A handful look to be roughly half the size of Pluto. Until recently, the larger KBOs had fueled speculation that one or more Pluto-sized bodies would eventually be found.

“Given that our survey has covered almost the entire region of the Kuiper Belt, I’m willing to bet these days that nothing larger than Pluto will be found in the Kuiper Belt,” says Caltech astronomer Mike Brown.

As hope fades, a study released earlier this month shows that some KBOs are smaller than had been assumed.

The size of a distant object is often based on an estimate of its reflectivity, a measure called albedo. For years astronomers had assumed KBOs were pretty dark, reflecting just 4 percent of the sunlight that hit them.

University of Arizona astronomer John Stansberry used NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain actual albedos for some of these icy objects.

“Our results have albedos ranging from 6 percent to 18 percent for the eight objects I’ve analyzed,” Stansberry said. If a KBO is brighter than thought, then less surface area is required to reflect the amount of sunlight that was measured — so the object’s size must be revised downward.

One object, catalogued as 2002 AW197, was thought to be two-thirds the diameter of Pluto. Stansberry has now shrunk that estimate to about one-third.

Looking into a new realm

Some of the larger objects out there have not shrunk, however, because their actual albedos were already fairly well known. One of these is way, way out there, and it is seen as a missing link to the space beyond the Kuiper Belt.

Last November, Mike Brown’s team found a world at least half as large as Pluto. They named it Sedna, after the Inuit sea goddess. Sedna’s elongated orbit is outside the Kuiper Belt, ranging from 76 to 1,000 AU.

Sedna was found only because it is currently near the innermost stretch of its travels.

Well past Sedna is another reservoir of material left over from the formation of the solar system, theorists believe. The Oort Cloud is a hypothesized sphere of frozen objects thought to start at about 10,000 AU and extend to 100,000 AU, or 1.5 light-years from the Sun.

Nobody expected to find an object like Sedna in the largely empty space between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. Theorists are now scrambling to explain Sedna’s presence and what it means to the composition of the outer solar system.

“Sedna could be a member of a substantial population of bodies trapped between the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud,” says the University of Hawaii’s David Jewitt, who made the first accurate estimate of a KBO albedo in 2001.

Brown, who now bets against finding Planet X in the Kuiper Belt, thinks his group’s discovery of Sedna portends an even more compelling scenario.

“I’d also be willing to bet that there are many objects larger than Pluto out in the region of space where Sedna lives,” Brown said last week. Out to about 1,000 AU, he speculates that there could be 10 or 20 Pluto-sized objects, “and a handful of larger things, too.” Some of these suspected worlds could be as big as Mercury or even Mars, he said.

I asked Brown if there might be worlds larger than Pluto clear out at the edge of the Oort Cloud, 1.5 light-years away and nearly half the distance to the Alpha Centauri star system.

“Absolutely,” he said. “Probably even likely.”

Waiting on technology

New telescopes will be needed to connect the dots of the outer solar system.

“Pluto-sized planets in distant near-circular orbits are beyond the reach of current searches,” said Lowell Observatory astronomer Bob Millis, who leads a team that has found more than 400 KBOs. “Future searches tuned to more distant objects and using large telescopes … can begin to probe this region.”

And while Mike Brown has his mental sights set beyond Sedna, Millis thinks there could still be a surprise lurking in the Kuiper Belt.

“It is certainly possible that one or more objects as large as Pluto remain to be found inside about 70 AU,” Millis told me. “No searches performed to date are complete in this region,” although he added that the survey by Brown and his colleagues, Chad Trujillo and David Rabinowitz, “has substantially reduced the likelihood” that such objects exist.

“Beyond about 70 AU,” Millis said, “it is anybody’s guess.”

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Sheldon Nidle – Sirian Update Nov 2/10

Posted by Admin on November 5, 2010

Image of the top layers of the earth's atmosph...

Crescendo!

Tuesday, 02 November 2010 16:52

Update by Sheldan Nidle for the Spiritual Hierarchy and the Galactic Federation

2 Imix, 19 Tzec, 7 Ik

Selamat Balik! We come again with much to tell you. Our Earth allies are poised for the deliveries of the prosperity programs. Also, those involved in the change of government are ready at a moment’s notice to fulfill these vital tasks. Once these two requisites are manifested, the long-awaited announcements can happen. We are preparing our own scenario to ensure that this critical turn of events takes place at the right divine time. As you know only too well, the dark cabalists have hung on to their positions of power and wealth for far too long. Heaven has instructed us, therefore, to back up our Earth allies with a full range of contingency planning, which allows us to make sure that the various components of the plan are carried out as directed by heavenly decree. And so our personnel are now strategically placed to assure one and all that what our Earth allies do is done successfully. Over the past few months, we have monitored the activities of the dark’s minions very closely, and this surveillance has revealed a veritable bedlam of mischief making!

In every corner of the globe the dark is busy with plots to delay the successful implementation of the new banking regulations. Its dark agents are working hard to put up obstacles to the reformation of the new banking system and these obstructions have been somewhat successful. However, most of those being roped in to these stratagems are deeply resistant to the dark’s overtures. Meanwhile, the present system is approaching a vast currency meltdown. This escalating rate of failure is undermining the way the banking system operates, which in turn triggers the systemic crash that will secure the failure of the worldwide chain of large interlocked banks. Ironically, it is these two coming collapses that will pull the rug out from under the cabal’s treacherous activities. Several weeks ago, we extracted a number of grudging agreements from the dark’s chief directorates to stand down and permit the grand changes to roll out unhindered. Naturally, these agreements are being reneged upon, and we quite understand their state of panic and the levels of anxiety that now beset them.

Nevertheless, it is high time for an about-face, as the old dark order is on the brink of free fall. Indeed, all aspects of your world are in crisis mode. The ecosystems are losing their biodiversity and a mass extinction is underway. These things have been studied by a number of scientific councils and intergovernmental agencies, such as your UN. So far, the recommendations of these committees have been largely ignored. Sadly, this represents the normal approach to change on the part of the large corporations, but willful clinging to the status quo is unable to sustain your globe over the coming decades. The same modus operandi holds true for the major universities, whose role it is to advise the world about what is occurring. This glacial rate of adaptation to urgent new conditions fosters not only overwhelming crises but sets you on a slippery slope to extinction. Many perceptive groups and thinking individuals realize this and are committed to a wholly new paradigm. Once we explained to them what our Earth allies were doing, they became powerful new adherents to our cause.

Our Earth allies have expanded their inner core on several occasions, and it is this inner core that works directly with our liaison teams and diplomatic corps. We provide assistance that is creating the viable structure for change because despite their many resources and deep commitment to their cause, the Earth allies’ success requires our presence. The dark regards the Earth allies as mere do-gooders but truly fears what we are capable of. It is this technological superiority that ensures the Earth allies’ success. We know that the cabalists intend to weasel out of everything they sign or agree to, and we have expressed our displeasure at this improbity. When we force them to toe the line, they do so unwillingly, and so we watch them closely to ensure that all goes according to plan. We update our Earth allies continuously and prepare them for what needs to be done next. These tactics have brought the Light to the very brink of victory!

As we work toward new government and full UFO disclosure, we see how your planet’s energies are changing: Gaia deeply wishes to transform into a 5-D planet. The same is true of your solar system, into which the Sun is flooding every nook and cranny with new Light. Your scientists are noticing the many anomalies popping up throughout the solar system, like the unusual activity on Mercury and the curious happenings on distant Pluto and Neptune. In addition, a new grid, in which all the planets ‘ride’, is beginning to manifest. This phenomenon was first widely identified at the start of this decade. Our ever-strengthening presence, too, has alarmed many scientists associated with those governments that run space programs. Many aspects of our mission here have required us to bring in the facilities needed for transforming this solar system into a fully conscious one.

As we often remind you, this particular mission has evolved over time into a most unusual one. We are not only part of your transformation into full consciousness but also a vehicle for altering your entire reality. Normally, these aspects would be left up to your local Spiritual Hierarchies, and we would merely follow the decrees of these sacred organizations. In your case, we have been drawn into actually carrying out the final steps of moving your world and yourselves into full consciousness. This unique undertaking has taught us much about who you are and who we are. This opportunity to gain such wisdom is a joy! Most of what we are learning is being recorded in our sacred texts. These writings are opening up sacred knowledge and new rituals, which are giving us insights on Creation and on the workings that are transforming physicality.

As we approach success, we notice the way the divine plan has set up the coming events. The dark is relinquishing its hold on you most reluctantly as each day sees its power diminishing on various fronts. This decrease is noted by us and explained to our Earth allies. Most of you are too caught up in the drama of daily survival to notice much else, but this diversion makes it easier for our Earth allies to carry out their agenda. We observe the way the power centers are changing, making it harder and harder for the cabal to hew to its original plan. This is not to say that a degree of effectiveness does not still remain, but what is important is that the dark ones realize that their grip has loosened to the point where the Light’s agenda is manifesting more and more in every moment of every day. This is why we see our victory as now actually happening.

What is now happening is an ever-accelerating move to the Light, to abundance, to freedom, and to Truth! The old dark ways are falling away and the awakening of Earth’s humanity is in full swing. This means that radical new ways of doing things can surge ahead. Events are about to pop which will validate these statements for all to see. We watch over you from our ships, and at night we commune with you while you are in a special, relaxed state of consciousness. The Galactic Federation medical teams responsible for your physical progress are assiduously getting you ready for direct contact with us because once we arrive the move toward completion of full consciousness will be full steam ahead!

Today, we relayed to you what is happening on your world. You are progressing quickly toward full consciousness and we look forward to our coming interactions with you. The time is approaching swiftly for first contact and the events that are to lead up to it. Know, dear Ones, in your Heart of Hearts that the countless Supply and never-ending Prosperity of Heaven are indeed Yours! So Be It! Selamat Gajun! Selamat Ja! (Sirian for Be One! and Be in Joy!) info@paoweb.com

 

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Revealed: What our solar system would look like to alien astronomers

Posted by Admin on September 28, 2010

Charon compared with Eris, Pluto, Makemake, Ha...

Planets

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1314880/Nasa-supercomputer-shows-solar-looks-like-alien-astronomers.html

By DAILY MAIL REPORTER
Last updated at 3:13 PM on 24th September 2010

Scientists have used a Nasa supercomputer to work out what our solar system would look like to alien astronomers searching for other planets.

New simulations have tracked the interactions of thousands of dust grains to how this view might have changed as our planetary system matured.

And astronomers hope that the new view could help them learn how to spot planets orbiting distant stars.

The dust originates in the Kuiper Belt, a cold-storage zone beyond Neptune where millions of icy bodies – including Plutoorbit the Sun.

These images, produced by computer models that track the movement of icy grains, represent infrared snapshots of Kuiper Belt dust as seen by a distant observe

These images, produced by computer models that track the movement of icy grains, represent infrared snapshots of Kuiper Belt dust as seen by a distant observe

Kuiper Belt objects occasionally crash into each other, and this relentless bump-and-grind produces a flurry of icy grains.

But tracking how this dust travels through the solar system is not easy because small particles are subject to a variety of forces in addition to the gravitational pull of the sun and planets.

The grains are affected by the solar wind, which works to bring dust closer to the sun, and sunlight, which can either pull dust inward or push it outward. Exactly what happens depends on the size of the grain.

‘Our new simulations also allow us to see how dust from the Kuiper Belt might have looked when the solar system was much younger,’ said Christopher Stark, Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C.

‘In effect, we can go back in time and see how the distant view of the solar system may have changed.’

‘The planets may be too dim to detect directly, but aliens studying the solar system could easily determine the presence of Neptune — its gravity carves a little gap in the dust,’ said Marc Kuchner, an astrophysicist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre, who led the study.

‘We’re hoping our models will help us spot Neptune-sized worlds around other stars.’

The models include the effects of collisions among grains. By ramping up the collision rate, the simulations show how the distant view of the solar system might have changed over its history

The models include the effects of collisions among grains. By ramping up the collision rate, the simulations show how the distant view of the solar system might have changed over its history

The particles also run into each other, and these collisions can destroy the fragile grains. A paper on the new models, which are the first to include collisions among grains, appeared in the Sept. 7 edition of The Astronomical Journal.

‘People felt that the collision calculation couldn’t be done because there are just too many of these tiny grains too keep track of,’ Kuchner said. ‘We found a way to do it, and that has opened up a whole new landscape.’

With the help of NASA’s Discover supercomputer, the researchers kept tabs on 75,000 dust particles as they interacted with the outer planets, sunlight, the solar wind — and each other.

The size of the model dust ranged from about the width of a needle’s eye to more than a thousand times smaller, similar in size to the particles in smoke.

During the simulation, the grains were placed into one of three types of orbits found in today’s Kuiper Belt at a rate based on current ideas of how quickly dust is produced.

From the resulting data, the researchers created synthetic images representing infrared views of the solar system seen from afar.

‘One thing we’ve learned is that, even in the present-day solar system, collisions play an important role in the Kuiper Belt’s structure,’ Stark said.

That’s because collisions tend to destroy large particles before they can drift too far from where they’re made. This results in a relatively dense dust ring that straddles Neptune’s orbit.

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