Revolutionizing Awareness

helping humanity, make choices, more so through awareness, than ignorance

Posts Tagged ‘solar system’

The End of the World

Posted by Admin on September 28, 2012

by Owen K Waters

When you practice viewing the future, one thing you might notice is that, a few years from now, everything goes blank as though the world has disappeared! Whoops, where did the world go?

This happens when you are tracking forward along the frequency of the world we now inhabit. But, the world is about to change. All matter is about to go through a quantum leap in frequency and ascend into a new, more subtle physical existence. It is an energy shift which has been building for centuries and we’re getting close to where that sudden leap into the new frequency band will happen. The fast rate of change that we experience in life today is indicative of just how close we are to the critical point where the quantum shift will occur.

The quantum shift is an effect of a major cosmic influence which extends far beyond the planet and even the solar system. We chose to be born in these times because we want to go along for the greatest ride in the history of the human experience on Earth.

The world is about to change, as is the entire solar system. All matter, including your physical body, will become more subtle and more energetically refined.

One day, you will wake up to a world that is different. After this quantum shift, your intuitive faculties will become much clearer. Telepathy between loved ones will become easy to develop. Mental contact with friends and relatives who have passed on will become ever more commonplace.

People will begin to perceive the subtle light that radiates from their bodies and other matter. The sky will seem to be full of vibrant life energy. Colors will take on deeper hues and sounds will expand in depth, creating a whole new range of possibilities in music and the arts. People will consume lighter foods and more liquids than before. Eventually, everyone will have one job description – to serve humanity in the best way of which they are capable.

After all, from a soul perspective, we are here primarily to help one another.

The best news is that the new frequency of the Earth will be of the same frequency as heart-centered human consciousness. Imagine, peace breaking out all over the world!

One day, the world as we know it will end as it moves into the new frequency band. There has been much speculation that the ending of several cosmic cycles in 2012 will activate that quantum leap. I see it taking several years after 2012, under the influence of the new cosmic cycles, for the cosmic time to be right for the big shift.

Even if you were to pass on to the spirit realms before The Shift, you will still be a part of this all-inclusive cosmic event. The spirit realms will move up in frequency at the same time. Technically, their departure from their current vibrational position will actually create the vibrational slot that the physical world will move into.

Today, we refer to The Shift as an ongoing acceleration towards quantum change, and something that has been taking many years. The big event, however, will be the instantaneous transformation of matter into a higher frequency. In the future, The Shift will refer to that one beautiful event: The day the Earth became new again.

This was an excerpt from Owen K Waters’ e-book, Follow the Yellow Brick Road: A Journey in Consciousness, which is available for immediate download at:

*If you enjoyed today’s article, forward it to a friend! They will appreciate your thoughtfulness.


Posted in Owen Waters | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Comments Off on The End of the World

Saturn’s Two Largest Moons Line Up in New Photo

Posted by Admin on February 18, 2012;_ylt=AsTeQH5sJ3xMr1eBY2fKRlSs0NUE;_ylu=X3oDMTNpMGo5M3RrBG1pdAMEcGtnAzNmMWZiNTFiLWQ2Y2QtM2FiZC1iM2ZjLWIwYWE5NWYxNmE0MwRwb3MDMwRzZWMDbG5fTGF0ZXN0TmV3c19nYWwEdmVyAzQ5NDgyMDMwLTVhMmMtMTFlMS1iZjVkLTFmZmIyODYxYTc4MQ–;_ylv=3

By Staff | – 52 mins ago

Saturn’s two biggest moons hang together in a stunning new photo from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft.

The image shows the heavily cratered Rhea in the foreground, while the hazy orb of the huge moon Titan looms in the distance. Cassini snapped the new Saturn moon photo in visible green light on Dec. 10, 2011, and it was released to the public on Monday (Feb. 13).

Cassini was about 808,000 miles (1.3 million kilometers) from Rhea and 1.2 million miles (2 million km) from Titan when it took the picture, researchers said.

Titan is the largest of Saturn’s many satellites; at 3,200 miles (5,150 km) wide, it’s nearly 1.5 times bigger than Earth’s moon. The only moon in our solar system larger than Titan is Ganymede, which orbits Jupiter.

Titan has a thick, nitrogen-rich atmosphere that shrouds the frigid body in a soupy brown shroud. Complex organic molecules — the carbon-containing building blocks of life as we know it — swirl about in this atmosphere.

The huge moon also has a hydrocarbon-based weather system, with methane rain falling from the sky and pooling in liquid-methane lakes. Astrobiologists speculate that Titan may be one of the best places in the solar system to search for life beyond Earth.

Rhea is Saturn’s second-largest moon, but it’s a shrimp compared to Titan, measuring just 949 miles (1528 km) across. As the new photo shows, Rhea’s icy surface is battered and pocked with many craters.

Like Titan, Rhea has an atmosphere. But Rhea’s is very different; it’s much wispier and composed primarily of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Researchers think the oxygen comes from Rhea’s surface ice, liberated from water molecules that get blasted apart by charged particles streaming from Saturn’s magnetosphere. The source of the carbon dioxide, however, is more mysterious.

Cassini launched in 1997 and arrived at Saturn in 2004. It has been studying the ringed planet and its many moons ever since, and will continue to do so for years to come. Last year, NASA extended the probe’s mission to at least 2017.

Follow for the latest in space science and exploration news on Twitter @Spacedotcomand on Facebook.



Posted in Anomalic Interferences, Exopolitical Interventions | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Saturn’s Two Largest Moons Line Up in New Photo

Nine Planets Become 12 with Controversial New Definition

Posted by Admin on December 24, 2011

Update Aug. 17: Astronomers Sharply Divided on New Planet Definition

The tally of planets in our solar system would jump instantly to a dozen under a highly controversial new definition proposed by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).

Eventually there would be hundreds as more round objects are found beyond Neptune.

The proposal, which sources tell is gaining broad support, tries to plug a big gap in astronomy textbooks, which have never had a definition for the word “planet.” It addresses discoveries of Pluto-sized worlds that have in recent years pitched astronomers into heated debates over terminology.

The 12 planets under the newly proposed IAU definition. Planet sizes are shown to scale but their orbital distances are not to scale. CREDIT: IAU/Martin Kornmesser


Posted in Exopolitical Interventions | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Nine Planets Become 12 with Controversial New Definition

At Last, Earth-Sized Alien Worlds (Infographic)

Posted by Admin on December 24, 2011

by Karl Tate, Contributor
Date: 20 December 2011 Time: 01:02 PM ET
The Kepler space telescope has spied evidence of two Earth-sized worlds in a star system 950 light-years away.

  On Dec. 20, 2011, astronomers announced the discovery an alien solar system 950 light-years from Earth that is chock full of planets, including the first two extrasolar worlds ever confirmed to be the size of our own Earth or smaller.

Finding Earth-size planets has been a major goal for NASA’s Kepler space observatory, which spotted the small alien worlds and their larger cousins around a star known as Kepler 20. The two Earth-size planets (one is actually smaller than Earth) are known as Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f. See how the planets compare to Earth and the other planets in their alien star system in the infographic above.


Posted in Exopolitical Interventions | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Comments Off on At Last, Earth-Sized Alien Worlds (Infographic)

Planets Large and Small Populate Our Galaxy (Infographic)

Posted by Admin on December 23, 2011

by Karl Tate, Contributor
Date: 05 December 2011 Time: 05:03 PM ET
Astronomers searching for another Earth are getting closer, thanks to recent discoveries by the Kepler space telescope.

  Astronomers have discovered more than 700 alien planets beyond the solar system, and the count is rising all the time. Some are large and hot, and others are smaller and cooler, but scientists are still on the lookout for an Earth twin.

They just got closer, with the announcement Dec. 5 of a planet found by NASA’s Kepler space telescope to lie in the habitable zone around its star where liquid water, and perhaps life, could exist.


Posted in Exopolitical Interventions | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Planets Large and Small Populate Our Galaxy (Infographic)

Disaster Predictions

Posted by Admin on November 16, 2011

Disaster Predictions
by Owen Waters

I’ve been watching a long litany of disaster predictions come and go for many years.

The amazing thing is: None of them ever came true.

Not one of them, ever!

Last June, for example, I was forwarded an email that contained a particularly dire prediction. It stated that, on September 26th, 2011, Comet ELE would swing by, causing massive 9-point-plus earthquakes here on Earth.

This was no run-of-the-mill comet, by the way. This one was supposed to be more than 300 times the size of the Earth! It was also supposed to bring us three days of darkness while it passed between us and the Sun.

Pretty scary, huh? I thought so, anyway.

Naturally, September the 26th came and went with no sign of Comet Whopper. The only whopper in sight was the big lie behind yet another nonsensical disaster prediction.

Who are these people who make up such horror stories? Are their lives so filled with utter boredom that they have to run around trying to scare people?

The next big upcoming Disaster-Fest will be the Mayan ‘End Time’ in December 2012. The closer we get to that date, the more you’ll hear these people yelling messages like, “The End is Nigh!”

Will the world come to an end in 2012? Is the Mayan End Time the end of all time and life as we know it? Are we about to be smitten by an angry God?

Now is a great time to review our online 2012 article and find out the facts for yourself:

*If you enjoyed today’s article, forward it to a friend! They will appreciate your thoughtfulness.

Owen Waters is the author of Spirituality Made Simple, which is available both as a paperback and a downloadable e-book, at:


Posted in Owen Waters | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Disaster Predictions

Solar System Surprise: A New View of What’s Out There

Posted by Admin on August 12, 2011

by Robert Roy Britt, Senior Science Writer
Date: 22 November 2004 Time: 06:24 AM ET
Size comparison between Sedna and other bodies in the Solar System. Image
CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt

A fabled tenth planet out beyond Neptune, often referred to as Planet X, hasn’t been found despite years of searching. But astronomers involved in the hunt are beginning to speculate that something like Planet X will be discovered, along with Y and Z.

In fact, the entire alphabet may not suffice to denote the many worlds circling the Sun.

In an emerging new theoretical view of our corner of the galaxy, several worlds larger than Pluto — a few perhaps as big as Mars — lurk in the outskirts of the solar system. Some are so far away that it would take more than a year, traveling at the speed of light, to reach them.

Wrapping up one search

For years, astronomers have been scouring the Kuiper Belt, a region past Neptune that’s loaded with comet-like objects. The Kuiper Belt extends out to some 5 billion miles (8 billion kilometers) from the Sun. That’s a little more than 50 times the distance between Earth and the Sun, or 50 astronomical units (AU).

Since 1992, more than 800 Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) have been found. A handful look to be roughly half the size of Pluto. Until recently, the larger KBOs had fueled speculation that one or more Pluto-sized bodies would eventually be found.

“Given that our survey has covered almost the entire region of the Kuiper Belt, I’m willing to bet these days that nothing larger than Pluto will be found in the Kuiper Belt,” says Caltech astronomer Mike Brown.

As hope fades, a study released earlier this month shows that some KBOs are smaller than had been assumed.

The size of a distant object is often based on an estimate of its reflectivity, a measure called albedo. For years astronomers had assumed KBOs were pretty dark, reflecting just 4 percent of the sunlight that hit them.

University of Arizona astronomer John Stansberry used NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain actual albedos for some of these icy objects.

“Our results have albedos ranging from 6 percent to 18 percent for the eight objects I’ve analyzed,” Stansberry said. If a KBO is brighter than thought, then less surface area is required to reflect the amount of sunlight that was measured — so the object’s size must be revised downward.

One object, catalogued as 2002 AW197, was thought to be two-thirds the diameter of Pluto. Stansberry has now shrunk that estimate to about one-third.

Looking into a new realm

Some of the larger objects out there have not shrunk, however, because their actual albedos were already fairly well known. One of these is way, way out there, and it is seen as a missing link to the space beyond the Kuiper Belt.

Last November, Mike Brown’s team found a world at least half as large as Pluto. They named it Sedna, after the Inuit sea goddess. Sedna’s elongated orbit is outside the Kuiper Belt, ranging from 76 to 1,000 AU.

Sedna was found only because it is currently near the innermost stretch of its travels.

Well past Sedna is another reservoir of material left over from the formation of the solar system, theorists believe. The Oort Cloud is a hypothesized sphere of frozen objects thought to start at about 10,000 AU and extend to 100,000 AU, or 1.5 light-years from the Sun.

Nobody expected to find an object like Sedna in the largely empty space between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. Theorists are now scrambling to explain Sedna’s presence and what it means to the composition of the outer solar system.

“Sedna could be a member of a substantial population of bodies trapped between the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud,” says the University of Hawaii’s David Jewitt, who made the first accurate estimate of a KBO albedo in 2001.

Brown, who now bets against finding Planet X in the Kuiper Belt, thinks his group’s discovery of Sedna portends an even more compelling scenario.

“I’d also be willing to bet that there are many objects larger than Pluto out in the region of space where Sedna lives,” Brown said last week. Out to about 1,000 AU, he speculates that there could be 10 or 20 Pluto-sized objects, “and a handful of larger things, too.” Some of these suspected worlds could be as big as Mercury or even Mars, he said.

I asked Brown if there might be worlds larger than Pluto clear out at the edge of the Oort Cloud, 1.5 light-years away and nearly half the distance to the Alpha Centauri star system.

“Absolutely,” he said. “Probably even likely.”

Waiting on technology

New telescopes will be needed to connect the dots of the outer solar system.

“Pluto-sized planets in distant near-circular orbits are beyond the reach of current searches,” said Lowell Observatory astronomer Bob Millis, who leads a team that has found more than 400 KBOs. “Future searches tuned to more distant objects and using large telescopes … can begin to probe this region.”

And while Mike Brown has his mental sights set beyond Sedna, Millis thinks there could still be a surprise lurking in the Kuiper Belt.

“It is certainly possible that one or more objects as large as Pluto remain to be found inside about 70 AU,” Millis told me. “No searches performed to date are complete in this region,” although he added that the survey by Brown and his colleagues, Chad Trujillo and David Rabinowitz, “has substantially reduced the likelihood” that such objects exist.

“Beyond about 70 AU,” Millis said, “it is anybody’s guess.”


Posted in Anomalic Interferences, Earth Changes | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Solar System Surprise: A New View of What’s Out There

The Man Who Finds Planets

Posted by Admin on August 12, 2011

Give Caltech astronomer Mike Brown a telescope and there’s no telling what he might discover out there

by Cal Fussman, Photography by Misha Gravenor

From the May 2006 issue; published online May 27, 2006

Mike Brown grew up near NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, where his dad and every other dad in the neighborhood worked on Saturn rockets. Occasionally, the earth would rumble as he studied at his desk in a room dominated by a poster of the solar system. The shaking signaled yet another rocket test.

Decades later, Brown and his colleagues, Chad Trujillo of Gemini Observatory and David Rabinowitz of Yale University, have shaken the world of astronomy right down to that solar system poster, finding orbital objects as far as 10 billion miles from the sun in a ring of debris called the Kuiper belt. They nicknamed those icy bodies Quaoar, Sedna, Santa, Easter Bunny, and Xena.

The most important find is Sedna, which Brown calls a fossil that could lead to the unraveling of the history of the solar system. But the one that has caused the biggest uproar among astronomers is Xena, recently confirmed by a team of German scientists as being at least 30 percent larger than Pluto.

Mike Brown collects rock spheres to represent the planetoids he’s found beyond Pluto.

Xena prompted an ongoing debate in the International Astronomical Union as to whether it should be formally recognized as the 10th planet, or whether Pluto should be demoted and the number of planets reduced to eight. Whatever the decision, ultimately every elementary school science textbook will need to be rewritten and every solar system poster revised.

If you knew me as a first- or ­second-year graduate student in astronomy at the University of California at Berkeley, you’re probably a little surprised to be reading about me now.

I didn’t quite fit back then. I lived in a sailboat in the Berkeley marina and spent most of my time backpacking. Then came a big transformational moment. And the only reason I remember it being transformational is because afterward it happened again.

 I went to the University of California’s Lick Observatory with my academic adviser, and we were using this monstrous three-meter (120 inch) telescope. It was like a cathedral, actually, and a guy at the observatory mentioned this little telescope attached to the side of the big one. He said nobody used it because it was small and you couldn’t really see much with it. I can still remember the feeling twisting in my stomach: That’s wrong.

It’s so hard to get time on a telescope. It’s just wrong to have telescopes that don’t get used. So I walked around for six months thinking there must be some way to take advantage of them all the time. It’s completely backward from how anybody else figures out a Ph.D. project. Nobody finds a telescope and then, having no research topic in mind, spends a long time wondering what to do with it.

That telescope led me to study Io, one of the moons of Jupiter, focusing on its volcanoes and on how it interacts with Jupiter’s magnetic field. For my Ph.D. thesis I used the telescope to observe Io for six months straight, watching volcanoes going off and then watching the changes.

Brown and his team collect data daily via a microwave link to Mount Palomar’s Samuel Oschin Telescope (Above and below)

But you know what that telescope really did? It made me very alert when the next transformational moment came along.

I was walking down the hall past the office next to mine—the office of a postdoc named Jane Luu—when I heard this urgent whisper: “C’mere!” Jane led me to her computer screen and showed me what she and Dave Jewitt had just discovered far beyond Pluto: the first Kuiper belt object.

This was 1992. It’s funny now to think back on it. The day before, the Kuiper belt was thought of as a repository of comets that were maybe a kilometer across. This object was a couple of hundred kilometers across. The day before that discovery, the idea that there were large objects out there simply hadn’t occurred to most people. And when it came time for me to think about what to do next, this was obviously the place to look.

My work on Io led me to Caltech, which is a fantastic place for an astronomer. But it was pretty different from what I was used to—that small telescope and a lot of access. At Caltech, you have access to really big telescopes—some of the greatest in the world—but for only a few nights a year. It makes a big difference in how you do astronomy, and to be honest, I felt uneasy. I liked the style that I’d used on Io and actually told my father I was thinking about leaving. He promptly responded that if I left Caltech I was a nut.

Just a few months later, I was using the big 200-inch Hale Telescope at Caltech’s Palomar Observatory. It was a snowy night, and we couldn’t view anything, so I headed off to the place where you can sleep. On the way, I ran into a staff member who wanted to show me the Samuel Oschin Telescope, a 48-inch instrument that had been used for 50 years to do the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey.

Astronomers all know the Palomar sky survey. It was huge. It took photographic plates everywhere across the sky, and these plates were reproduced on film and sent to every astronomy library in the world, which allowed anybody to get out a jewelers’ loupe and look at whatever part of the sky he or she wished.

They were just about done with the second-generation survey, and this staff member told me that, basically, when the telescope finished there would be nothing else for it to do, and it was just going to sit there. I thought, “Oh, no, it’s not!”

It was instantly obvious that the ­Oschin was the telescope to use to find the largest Kuiper belt objects out there. The amount of sky that had been searched for these objects was insignificant. And the way to find these objects was to get a telescope that you could have access to a lot of the time and survey the whole sky.

I spent three years doing a huge survey using the 48-inch telescope and the type of photographic plates used for the Palomar sky survey. Each plate was a 14-inch square of glass with photographic emulsion painted on the back. You’d take it up to the telescope in the dark, load it with the lights out, expose it to the sky for about an hour, take it out, and drop it into a dumbwaiter that went down to the darkroom, where someone would do the developing. After all that, you’d have one picture of the sky on a piece of glass. Then the plates needed to be scanned and digitized so that the computer could look for things that were moving, and we no longer had to look by eye.

This led to three years of very intense effort. We found absolutely nothing, but it didn’t matter. I knew that we had the chance to find something really big and significant out there.

The only reason we didn’t find anything is that photographic plates can’t pick up things as faint as what we can see today with new technology—and we got unlucky. Where we looked there was nothing, but if we had gone just five degrees south, we would’ve found Xena five years ago on those photographic plates.

The spheres in Brown’s office serve as both trophies and working models of his discoveries.  They include, left to right, Xena and its moon; Santa; and Quaoar.

In some ways, I’m glad we didn’t. It would have been exciting, but it’s been kind of fun to do the progression. It was so clear that there had to be large objects out there because people kept finding things a couple hundred kilometers across, and you can extrapolate. You never know if extrapolation is going to work, but we could extrapolate that there’d be a couple of things the size of Pluto or bigger.

We were obviously disappointed that the first three years didn’t work out. Apparently, my tenure committee was a little worried about that too. But I wasn’t. Not finding something is not a problem—it is still good science. What you need to do is go back, do very careful calibrations, and write a paper about not finding anything so that it’s useful.

At that point we had already started working towards putting in the new system that we have now, which is a CCD camera that’s very much like the small digital cameras everyone uses these days. The same objects that the photographic plates needed an hour to record could be seen in minutes by the digital camera. That’s a huge difference and enabled us to cover a lot of sky. To give you an idea of the difference, three years of work with photographic plates could be done with the CCD in the course of roughly a month. And I could see things that were one-tenth as bright.

I realized that I had to make a big decision. I could either spend my time doing the calibrations of the old survey and write about why I didn’t find anything, or I could put the old survey in the trash can and do it again with the new equipment.

“You have to write the old survey up,” I was told, and I understood that. That’s the obvious advice. I would give that same advice to almost anybody. But I knew it was the wrong advice. So I ignored it. Now you do that at your own peril.

We restarted the survey using CCDs just as the tenure process was moving ahead. By the time the committee had to make its decision, we hadn’t found anything at all—well, a few small things, but nothing big.

Luckily, this wasn’t the only thing I spent my time on. I’d done a few other things the committee was happy about. And as my division chair explained afterwards: “When it comes to tenure, everyone is looking for home runs. I had to argue that you had hit a lot of singles and doubles, which added up to one or two home runs.”

A week after I was given tenure, we found Quaoar.

Quaoar is about half the size of Pluto. Everybody was really excited and wanted to hear about it. This was June of 2002. Now when I look back, it’s “Hmmmm, Quaoar was big, but not that big compared to what came afterward.”

Sedna was completely unexpected. It’s 8 billion miles from the sun—Pluto is 3.6 billion—and in 2004 we had no idea that things in that very outer region of the solar system existed. The fact that they do is going to tell us an incredible amount about the birth of the sun and the earliest history of the solar system.

Sedna shouldn’t be there. There’s no way to put Sedna where it is. It never comes close enough to be affected by the sun, but it never goes far enough away from the sun to be affected by other stars, which is the case with comets that have been observed in the Kuiper belt. Sedna is stuck, frozen in place; there’s no way to move it. And if there’s no way to move it, basically there’s no way to put it there—unless it formed there. But it’s in a very elliptical orbit, and there’s no way to form anything in an elliptical orbit like that. It simply can’t be there. There’s no possible way—except it is. So how, then?

I’m thinking it was placed there in the earliest history of the solar system. I’m thinking it could have gotten there if there used to be stars a lot closer than they are now and those stars affected Sedna on the outer part of its orbit and then later on moved away. So I call Sedna a fossil record of the earliest solar system. Eventually, when other fossil records are found, Sedna will help tell us how the sun formed and the number of stars that were close to the sun when it formed.

Sedna is incredibly far away, and we never would have seen it if it weren’t as close as it gets on its orbit. In fact, there’s about a 200-year period when we can see it, and it has a 12,000-year orbit. So what does that mean? If we see it for 200 years out of 12,000, that means there’s only a 1 in 60 chance that we could’ve seen it, which means to me that there may be 60 of these things out there. And if there are 60 of these things, then there are probably 20 of these things just a little bigger and maybe a couple the size of Mercury or Mars. We’re trying very hard to find the whole population. Once it’s done, we’ll be able to read the entire fossil record and learn incredible things.

Even though we went on to discover Xena, which is bigger than Pluto and could be called a planet, that is not particularly profound in and of itself. We’ve known all along that there was likely to be something bigger than Pluto out there, and we finally found it. Scientifically, without question, the most important object we’ve discovered is Sedna.

Clyde Tombaugh, who found Pluto in 1930, spent a decade or more going out to the telescope at night, taking these photographic plates, developing the plates in daytime, and looking through them. I’ve never really seen any of the things I find. By “see” I mean looking through a telescope and having photons actually hitting the eye. I don’t even have to go to the telescope and do observations. The telescope takes pictures, and I see the pictures on a computer screen in my office. It’s abstract and at the same time robotic.

The computer churns through most of the data, and I look through it for about 15 minutes every day. Now it’s not like I don’t do anything—to automate it like that took years of effort. But that’s why it works and why I can actually have a wife and a life.

The very first time I saw Xena on my screen, I thought that there was something wrong. It was too big and too bright. I had to double-check where it was in the sky. Then I did a calculation of how big it was and how far away it was. Xena is the most distant object ever seen in orbit around the sun—10 billion miles away. And it turned out to be 1,800 miles in diameter, about 400 more than Pluto.

I grabbed the phone and called my wife. “I just found a planet,” I said. She was pregnant at the time, and she replied: “That’s nice, honey. Can you pick up some milk on your way home?”

Can I not talk about the Spaniards? I actually prefer to not mention them. These days I like to pretend like the whole thing never happened.

Well, OK, there’s no denying they’re part of the story. When we discovered the Kuiper belt object called Santa in December of ’04, we went crazy—this was the brightest thing we’d ever seen. We didn’t know how big it was at first, but we thought for reasonable and valid reasons that it was bigger than Pluto.

Less than three weeks later, in January of ’05, we discovered Xena, which we knew was bigger than Pluto. It couldn’t not be bigger than Pluto. And while we were studying these two in detail around Easter, we found another one, which we called Easter Bunny. It also looked like it might be bigger than Pluto, even though it wasn’t. But at the time we thought we had three objects bigger than Pluto.

We were going to announce our discovery of Santa first because rumors had escaped. That way, everybody would think that Santa was the one the rumors were about and would be off our trail.

We were preparing to talk about it at a meeting in September in Cambridge, En­gland. Then we’d announce the other two in October. There were three important reasons for this timetable. One, we wanted it to be during the school year because kids love this stuff. Two, we’d have time to prepare our scientific papers. You know, we actually like to do science on these things instead of just saying, “Oh, there’s something out there!” And three, my wife gave birth on July 7, and I wanted to enjoy a little quiet time with her and the baby.

At the end of July, we went to an International Astronomical Union conference and talked about Santa, although we didn’t say where it was, so there seemed to be no way you could find it.

But a few days later, on July 28, I got an e-mail from a guy working with us, who sent me an announcement on the discovery of an object and said, “Isn’t this the object that you were talking about?”

It was. Somebody had found Santa. People in the International Astronomical Union were suspicious because the abstracts of our talk had gone on the Web. But when they asked me if I was suspicious, I naively told them no.

A few hours later I realized to my shock that we stupidly mentioned real codes that the computer spits out as soon as we find something. Santa was K40506A, which indicates that it was discovered in 2004 on May 6. The A means that it was the first object that we had found on that date. We had used K40506A to identify the object in our abstracts, and that was dumb. We should’ve just used the name Santa.

Turns out, unbeknownst to us, that if you went to Google and typed K40506A, you’d find yourself deep down in an inadvertently public archive of where one of our telescopes had been pointing. We didn’t even know this archive existed, much less that you could actually get to it so easily from Google. Once you were there, you could figure out where we’d been looking.

The archive was not meant to be public. There was supposed to be one line of code in it to keep it private, but there was an error in that one line of code, and that made it available for the world to see.

Our Web server logs indicated that a computer at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia in Spain had visited. The same computer was used to e-mail an announcement claiming “the discovery.”

As soon as we realized what happened, we knew it would be very easy to find the other objects the same way. It was impossible to keep the other two secret.
It was Friday morning. When the sun went down that evening, anybody could point his telescope at the sky and say that he discovered the other two. So we had to announce their existence before sundown—the last Friday of July.

The space shuttle was up during that time, and they were trying to do repairs on the tiles. Every science reporter was at Johnson Space Center in Houston, but we called a press conference for four o’clock Pacific time Friday, which is the worst time to announce anything, and we had no scientific papers to back up our findings.

Our announcement was buried on page 18 of the Los Angeles Times. Nobody heard about it. The kids who love to find out about this stuff weren’t even in school.

If the International Astronomical Union declares Xena to be a real planet, I hope there will be a chance for everyone to hear about it. But if they declare it not to be a planet, that’s OK too.

The reason it doesn’t matter to me is that if you start from scratch and do a scientific definition, the right number of planets is eight. As sad as I am for poor Xena, it’s just not like the other eight. And Pluto is even smaller and less like the other eight. They’re just not real, bona fide planets in the scientific sense.

But every time you find something, people get excited. When we found Quaoar, people were asking, “Is it a planet?” and we said: “No, no, it’s not a planet. And, by the way, Pluto’s not a planet either.” Then we found Sedna. “Is it a planet, is it a planet?” “No, no, it’s not a planet. And, by the way, Pluto’s not a planet either.”  Same thing with Xena. Do we keep saying the same thing over and over? Or do we give up and realize that people just love Pluto?

Nobody wants to get rid of Pluto, and if you say that Pluto’s not a planet—that it’s just a crazy small thing out on the edge of the solar system—people look at you like you’re a big cosmic bully.

The word planet is a word that lives in people’s minds and imaginations. Pluto is a planet because for 75 years everybody’s known that Pluto is a planet, not because there’s a scientific reason.

Astronomers don’t like that because they think they own the word planet, but the word has been around for 2,000 years, and it’s never been a scientific word, and it doesn’t need to be.

The analogy I use is the word continent. There’s no scientific definition for the word continent. If you could come up with a scientific definition that encompasses the seven continents, I’d be impressed. Go ahead and try. Madagascar might be a continent because it’s on a separate geological plate. Europe? No, definitely not—why is it separate from Asia? I have no idea. Australia? Sure. Maybe we’d make New Zealand one. New Zealand’s got two plates. Anyway, you’d never hear geologists argue about this because they don’t care. In geology, it doesn’t matter whether society calls these things continents or not. They talk about what’s there: continental crusts, continental dynamics, and so forth. I think astronomers should take that cue and say, let’s be realistic—society wants labels on a small number of things we know about.

As scientists, of course, we need to know the difference between the eight things that are, let’s say, major planets versus the minor planets. That way, we’ll have good scientific names, just like geologists. And if people want to call Pluto a planet, let them call Pluto a planet.

But then you have to think about calling Xena a planet because it’s bigger. So if the International Astronomical Union wants to call Xena the 10th planet and give it a formal name, that’ll be fine by me too.

What do I do next? Well, if I’m still doing this down the road it means I’m stuck in a rut. Sometimes people can just go on forever doing something that gets increasingly less interesting. But I couldn’t, even if I wanted to, because we’ve run out of sky.

There’s a natural end to this survey. By this time next year—barring really bad weather—we’ll basically have covered the entire sky that we can see. We’d like to do the other hemisphere, too, and that’ll take another couple of years. But that’ll be it. So that’s a question I actually discuss with my students. What do we do next?
A lot of people have this five-year plan—what they want to do and where they want to be. I have no idea.

Maybe I’m just waiting for somebody to tell me about some telescope that nobody happens to be using. . . .


Astronomers must grope in the dark for clues to the shape and makeup of the vast exturbs beyond Pluto

Xena, the “is/isn’t” planet discovered by astronomer Mike Brown and his team, is the farthest object orbiting the sun that anyone has managed to find—roughly 10 billion miles out, more than 7 billion miles beyond Pluto. Yet Xena is nowhere close to the edge of our solar system.

The true outer limit is at least 500 times farther out, about 5 trillion miles beyond Pluto, where the sun looks like nothing more than a bright star and temperatures hover just a few degrees above absolute zero. Astronomers believe this region, called the Oort cloud, contains a vast collection of icy debris left over from material that came together to form the sun, Earth, and the other major planets 4.6 billion years ago.

Nothing in the Oort cloud is visible directly through telescopes, but astronomers infer its existence because it occasionally spits out objects that plunge toward the sun, where they sprout long, vaporous tails and become comets. About 10 comets from the farthest reaches of the solar system show up each year. Using mathematical models of the subtle forces that knock them loose—the tug of passing stars, interstellar gas clouds, and especially the gravitational fields of the galaxy itself—Harold Levison of the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, has estimated how many other objects populate the Oort cloud. “The total is about a trillion. It’s a huge number, even bigger than our country’s deficits,” he says.

Most of these hidden objects are presumably irregular chunks of rock, ice, and frozen gases less than a mile across, Levison says. “But I’m sure there are also things Pluto-size, even moon-size or Mars-size out there.” All the same,  everything in the Oort cloud added together might not outweigh Earth. The most notable aspect of the region is its breathtaking emptiness. It is so vast that the average distance between objects is about as great as the span from Earth to the sun. The only dramatic action happens as passing stars stir things up every few million years or so, puffing the Oort cloud up like a bag of Jiffy Pop and stripping off its outer layer. Thus its population steadily declines over the eons.

The inner Oort cloud, which stretches from a few tens of billions of miles to a few hundreds of billions of miles from the sun, is much more stable than the edge of the region. If any objects orbit there—nobody knows—they would stay in place indefinitely. Brian Marsden of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics speculates that there could be full-fledged Earth-size planets in this zone, circling unseen in the dark. “We would not have detected them observationally or dynamically,” he says.

Today’s best telescopes can penetrate only to the nearest part of the solar system’s outer regions, known as the Kuiper belt. During the solar system’s formative years, astronomers theorize, the region around Uranus and Neptune was full of icy bits of debris. As those giant outer planets grew, their powerful gravity flung much of that debris outward. The bits that migrated farthest scattered hither and yon, forming the Oort cloud. Material that stayed closer to the sun gave rise to the Kuiper belt.

The existence of the Kuiper belt was confirmed by direct observation in the early 1990s, when astronomers began to use high-sensitivity digital cameras and motion-sensing computer software to survey large areas of the sky. David Jewitt and Jane Luu of the University of Hawaii uncovered the first Kuiper belt object—a 100-mile-wide frozen ball known as QB1—in 1992. Then the floodgates opened: Astronomers quickly found more than 1,000 similar bodies, most of them about 4 billion miles from the sun, though a few orbit four or five times farther out.  The best estimate is that the region contains 100 million objects at least a mile wide. Once again, the small fry dominate. Levison and his colleagues reckon that the combined mass of all the Kuiper belt objects is significantly less than that of the Oort cloud, perhaps a 10th or a 100th the weight of Earth.

Astronomers once pictured the Kuiper belt as a giant ring-shaped collection of bodies along a disklike plane, called the ecliptic, in which Earth and all the other major planets orbit. But wide-field surveys of the sky have yielded surprises. Most notably, Xena sits at a rakish 45-degree angle to the main planets, making a mockery of the old idea that the Kuiper belt is literally a belt. According to the latest thinking, Uranus and Neptune moved around as they formed, and smaller but still substantial bodies may have further stirred up the outer solar system in ways astronomers are still struggling to understand. For now, Brown and his fellow planet hunters have learned that they need to put old ideas aside and search in all directions for new worlds.

That ever-broadening search is about to get a huge boost from Pan-STARRS—the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System—a prototype of which will start up in Hawaii later this year. It uses four sets of optics and the world’s largest digital camera to watch the entire sky for anything that moves, ranging from asteroids that stray dangerously close to Earth to unseen bodies in the Kuiper belt and beyond.

Pan-STARRS is a precursor to the much grander Large Synoptic Survey Telescope slated to begin operating in either Mexico or Chile in 2012. Using a mirror 28 feet wide—five times as big as the Pan-STARRS telescopes—and a camera the size of a pickup truck, it will be able to survey the entire sky in three days. Every 30 seconds it will gather 36 gigabytes of imagery, enough to fill 50 CDs. This digital cornucopia will most likely include a wealth of data about many thousands of Kuiper belt objects orbiting up to tens of billions of miles from the sun and almost certainly will include objects that once again contradict ideas about where the edge of the solar system is. “We’ve been wrong so many times before,” Marsden says.

Meanwhile, astronomers will get close-up views of the outer solar system in July 2015, when the New Horizons spacecraft flies past Pluto and sends back detailed images of the once most-distant planet and its three moons. If all goes well, New Horizons will then continue on into the Kuiper belt. John Spencer, an astronomer at the Southwest Research Institute who is working on the New Horizons mission plan, has not even picked his targets yet; he is waiting for Pan-STARRS to give him a better road map.

What New Horizons sees may be the missing links that tie the solar system together, from here to the very edge. If Levison is right, the same scattering that created the Kuiper belt and built up the Oort cloud also bombarded the young Earth with comets, reshaping its surface and delivering the ices that helped create its oceans and atmosphere. When you take a big enough look at the solar system, Levison says, “it’s all connected.”  -Corey S. Powell


Brown finds amazing stories written in dots of light. The pointer in a series of sky images identifies Sedna, a 1,000-mile-wide body whose oval orbit carries it up to 90 billion miles from the sun into an unexplored zone called the inner Oort cloud.


Posted in Annunaki Overlords, Anomalic Interferences, Earth Changes, Exopolitical Interventions | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on The Man Who Finds Planets

Sun’s Nemesis Pelted Earth with Comets, Study Suggests

Posted by Admin on August 12, 2011

by Leslie Mullen, Astrobiology Magazine
Date: 11 March 2010 Time: 08:16 AM ET
NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, will uncover many “failed” stars, or brown dwarfs, in infrared light. This diagram shows a brown dwarf in relation to Earth, Jupiter, a low-mass star and the sun. CREDIT: NASA

A dark object may be lurking near our solar system, occasionally kicking comets in our direction.?

Nicknamed “Nemesis” or “The Death Star,” this undetected object could be a red or brown dwarf star, or an even darker presence several times the mass of Jupiter.

Why do scientists think something could be hidden beyond the edge of our solar system? Originally, Nemesis was suggested as a way to explain a cycle of mass extinctions on Earth.?


Posted in Annunaki Overlords, Conspiracy Archives, Earth Changes, Exopolitical Interventions | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Sun’s Nemesis Pelted Earth with Comets, Study Suggests

Giant Stealth Planet May Explain Rain of Comets from Solar System’s Edge

Posted by Admin on August 12, 2011

by Charles Q. Choi, Contributor
Date: 01 December 2010 Time: 06:56 AM ET

Our sun may have a companion that disturbs comets from the edge of the solar system — a giant planet with up to four times the mass of Jupiter, researchers suggest.

A NASA space telescope launched last year may soon detect such a stealthcompanion to our sun, if it actually exists, in the distant icy realm of the comet-birthing Oort cloud, which surrounds our solar system with billions of icy objects.

The potential jumbo Jupiter would likely be a world so frigid it is difficult to spot, researchers said. It could be found up to 30,000 astronomical units from the sun. One AU is the distance between the Earth and the sun, about 93 million miles (150 million km).

Most systems with stars like our sun — so-called class G stars — possess companions. Only one-third are single-star systems like our solar system.

Not a nemesis

Scientists have already proposed that a hidden star, which they call “Nemesis,” might lurk a light-year or so away from our sun. They suggest that during its orbit, this red dwarf or brown dwarf star would regularly enter the Oort cloud, jostling the orbits of many comets there and causing some to fall toward Earth. That would provide an explanation for what seems to be a cycle of mass extinctions here.

Still, other astronomers recently found that if Nemesis did exist, its orbit could not be nearly as stable as claimed.

Now researchers point to evidence that our sun might have a different sort of companion.

To avoid confusion with the Nemesis model, astrophysicists John Matese and Daniel Whitmire at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette dub their conjectured object “Tyche” — the good sister of the goddess Nemesis in Greek mythology, and a name proposed by scientists working on NASA’s Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) space telescope.

It is the WISE observatory that, using its all-seeing infrared eye, stands the best chance of having spotted Tyche, if this companion to the sun exists at all, the researchers said. [WISE telescope’s amazing images]

Matese and Whitmire detailed their research Nov. 17 online edition of the journal Icarus.

Comet-flinging sun companion

The researchers noted that most comets that fly into the inner solar system seem to come from the outer region of the Oort cloud. Their calculations suggest the gravitational influence of a planet one to four times the mass of Jupiter in this area might be responsible.

Two centuries of observations have indicated an anomaly that suggests the existence of Tyche, Matese said. “The probability that it could be caused by a statistical fluke has remained very small,” he added.

The pull of Tyche might also explain why the dwarf planet Sedna has such an unusually elongated orbit, the researchers added.

If Tyche existed, it would probably be very cold, roughly minus 100 degrees F (-73 degrees C), they said, which could explain why it has escaped detection for so long — its coldness means that it would not radiate any heat scientists could easily spot, and its distance from any star means it would not reflect much light.

“Most planetary scientists would not be surprised if the largest undiscovered companion was Neptune-sized or smaller, but a Jupiter-mass object would be a surprise,” Matese told “If the conjecture is indeed true, the important implications would relate to how it got there — touching on the early solar environment — and how it might have affected the subsequent distributions of comets and, to a lesser extent, the known planets.”

Is Tyche really out there?

The fact of Tyche’s existence is questionable, since the pattern seen in the outer Oort cloud is not seen in the inner Oort.

“Conventional wisdom says that the patterns should tend to correlate, and they don’t,” Matese said.

If the WISE team was lucky, it caught evidence for the Tyche solar companion twice before thespace observatory’s original mission ended in October. That could be enough to corroborate the object’s existence within a few months as researchers analyze WISE’s data.

But if WISE detected signs of Tyche only once (or not at all), researchers would have to wait years for other telescopes to confirm or deny the potential solar companion’s existence, Matese said.


Posted in Annunaki Overlords, Conspiracy Archives, Exopolitical Interventions | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Giant Stealth Planet May Explain Rain of Comets from Solar System’s Edge

NASA Envisions Alien Worlds

Posted by Admin on July 2, 2011

NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC-Caltech)NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC-Caltech)
Out of the Dust, a Planet is Born
In this artist’s conception, a possible newfound planet spins through a clearing, detected around the star CoKu Tau 4 by the Spitzer Space Telescope, in a nearby star’s dusty, planet-forming disc. The possible planet is theorized to be at least as massive as Jupiter, and may have a similar appearance to what the giant planets in our own solar system looked like billions of years ago.

Hubble Spots Possible New Moons Around Pluto
The artist’s concept above shows the Pluto system from the surface of one of the candidate moons. The other members of the Pluto system are just above the moon’s surface. Pluto is the large disk at center, right. Charon, the system’s only confirmed moon, is the smaller disk to the right of Pluto. The other candidate moon is the bright dot on Pluto’s far left. Click image for full resolution.

Steaming Hot Planet
This artist’s impression shows a gas-giant exoplanet transiting across the face of its star. Infrared analysis by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope of this type of system provided the breakthrough.The planet, HD 189733b, lies 63 light-years away in the constellation Vulpecula. It was discovered in 2005 as it transited its parent star, dimming the star’s light by some three percent.

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Harvard-Smithsonian CfA NASA/JPL-Caltech/Harvard-Smithsonian CfA
Fantastic Four Galaxies with Planet
This artist’s concept shows what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical planet around a star tossed out of an ongoing four-way collision between big galaxies (yellow blobs). NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope spotted this “quadruple merger” of galaxies within a larger cluster of galaxies located nearly 5 billion light-years away.Though the galaxies appear intact, gravitational disturbances have caused them to stretch and twist, flinging billions of stars into space, nearly three times as many stars as are in our Milky Way galaxy. The tossed stars are visible in the large plume emanating from the central, largest galaxy. If any of these stars have planets, their night skies would be filled with the monstrous merger, along with other galaxies in the cluster (smaller, bluish blobs).This cosmic smash-up is the largest known merger between galaxies of a similar size. While three of the galaxies are about the size of our Milky Way galaxy, the fourth (center of image) is three times as big. All four of the galaxies, as well as most other galaxies in the huge cluster, are blob-shaped ellipticals instead of spirals like the Milky Way.Ultimately, in about one hundred million years or so, the four galaxies will unite into one. About half of the stars kicked out during the merger will fall back and join the new galaxy, making it one of the biggest galaxies in the universe.

Exoplanet HR 8799b
This is an artistic illustration of the giant planet HR 8799b.The planet was first discovered in 2007 at the Gemini North observatory. It was identified in the NICMOS archival data in a follow-up search of NICMOS archival data to see if Hubble had also serendipitously imaged it.The planet is young and hot, at a temperature of 1500 degrees Fahrenheit. It is slightly larger than Jupiter and may be at least seven times more massive. Analysis of the NICMOS data suggests the planet has water vapor in its atmosphere and is only partially cloud covered. It is not known if the planet has rings or moons, but circumplanetary debris is common among the outer planets of our solar system.

Chemical Soups Around Cool Stars
This artist’s conception shows a young, hypothetical planet around a cool star. A soupy mix of potentially life-forming chemicals can be seen pooling around the base of the jagged rocks. Observations from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope hint that planets around cool stars – the so-called M-dwarfs and brown dwarfs that are widespread throughout our galaxy – might possess a different mix of life-forming, or prebiotic, chemicals than our young Earth.

Huygens on Titan
In 2005 the robotic Huygens probe landed on Titan, Saturn’s enigmatic moon, and sent back the first ever images from beneath Titan’s thick cloud layers. This artist’s impression is based on those images. In the foreground, sits the car-sized lander that sent back images for more than 90 minutes before running out of battery power. The parachute that slowed Huygen’s re-entry is seen in the background, still attached to the lander. Smooth stones, possibly containing water-ice, are strewn about the landscape. Analyses of Huygen’s images and data show that Titan’s surface today has intriguing similarities to the surface of the early Earth.

Flaring Red Dwarf Star
This is an artist’s concept of a red dwarf star undergoing a powerful eruption, called a stellar flare. A hypothetical planet is in the foreground. Flares are sudden eruptions of heated plasma that occur when the field lines of powerful magnetic fields in a star’s atmosphere “reconnect,” snapping like a rubber band and releasing vast amounts of energy equivalent to the power of 100 million atomic bombs exploding simultaneously.Studying the light from 215,000 older red dwarfs collected in observations by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers found 100 stellar flares popping off over the course of a week.

Super-Hot Planet with Unique Comet-Like Tail
Astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of a baked object that could be called a “cometary planet.” The gas giant planet, named HD 209458b, is orbiting so close to its star that its heated atmosphere is escaping into space.Observations taken with Hubble’s Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) suggest powerful stellar winds are sweeping the cast-off atmospheric material behind the scorched planet and shaping it into a comet-like tail.

This Planet Smells Funny
Giant planet GJ 436b in the constellation Leo is missing something–and that something is swamp gas. To the surprise of astronomers who have been studying the Neptune-sized planet using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, GJ 436b has very little methane–an ingredient common to many planets in our own solar system. This artist’s concept shows the unusual, methane-free world partially eclipsed by its star.Models of planetary atmospheres indicate that any world with the common mix of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen, and a temperature up to 1,000 Kelvin (1,340 degrees Fahrenheit) should have a large amount of methane and a small amount of carbon monoxide. But at about 800 Kelvin (or 980 degrees Fahrenheit), GJ 436b it does not. The finding demonstrates the diversity of exoplanets and the need for further study.

NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana BerryNASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry
An Imagined Canyon on Planet Kepler 10-B
The daytime temperature is expected to be more than 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit, hotter than lava flows here on Earth, hot enough to melt iron! Many years ago, before Kepler launched, members of what became the Kepler team built a robotic telescope at Lick Observatory to learn to do transit photometry– detecting drops in brightness of stars when planets pass in front of them. We called it the Vulcan Telescope, named after the hypothetical planet that scientists in the 1800’s thought might exist between the Sun and Mercury. A planet that might explain the small deviations in Mercury’s orbit that were later explained with Einsteins theory of general relativity.Vulcan is the god of fire in Roman mythology, a name befitting of a world so close to the Sun. The artists rendering of Kepler-10b is reminiscent of that hypothetical planet Vulcan. The Kepler team came full circle in its quest. We know that we’ve only begun to imagine the possibilities.

NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana BerryNASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry
Imagined View from Planet Kepler 10-B
Kepler-10b orbits one of the 150,000 stars that the Kepler spacecraft is monitoring, a star that is very similar to our own Sun in temperature, mass and size, but older with an age of over 8 billion years, compared to the 4-and-1/2 billion years of our own Sun. It is one of the brighter stars that Kepler is monitoring and about 560 light years from our solar system, which means when the light from this star began its journey toward Earth, European navigators were crossing the Atlantic Ocean for the first time in search of new horizons. Today, we are still exploring and our crow’s nest is a space telescope called Kepler. One day, the oceans we cross will be the galaxy itself, but for now, we imagine the worlds we discover by putting all that we have learned from our observations and analyses into the fingers of artists.Kepler-10b must be a scorched world, orbiting at a distance that is more than 20 times closer to its star than Mercury is to our own Sun, with a daytime temperature expected to be more than 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit.The Kepler team has determined that Kepler-10b is a rocky planet, with a surface you could stand on, a mass 4.6 times that of Earth, anda diameter 1.4 times that of Earth.


Posted in Exopolitical Interventions | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on NASA Envisions Alien Worlds