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Posts Tagged ‘South Africa’

The Olympics – Guts and the gory

Posted by Admin on February 18, 2012

http://in.video.yahoo.com/blogs/vw/olympics-gory-075611209.html

By Tisha Srivastav | Video Wall – Fri 17 Feb, 2012 3:12 PM IST

Note by Admin: This is the same company responsible for the Bhopal Gas Tragedy that took place in the capital city Bhopal of Madhya Pradesh one of the central and largest states in the country of India.

It occurred on the night of December 2nd, 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant.

A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plant resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. Estimates vary on the death toll. Methyl isocyanate (MIC), a heavier-than-air gas, leaked from Tank 610 allowing 30 metric tons of the existing 42 tons to escape into the atmosphere in a matter of 45 to 60 minutes. The toxic substance made its way in and around the shantytowns located near the plant. The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release. Others estimate 3,000 died within weeks and another 8,000 have since died from gas-related diseases. A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partial and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries. As many as 25,000 deaths have been attributed to the disaster in recent estimates.

The company Dow chemicals responsible for the operations at large washed its hands off through legislation and legal affairs.

Remember far greater tragedies have befallen on the people of this world outside of the western nations and more so happen increasingly but go unrecognised, unreported and unnoticed because your MNCs are not liable for compensation to their actions outside the purview of your jurisdictions and also because rich people with fair skin and very high standards of living don’t really like seeing poor and darker looking people pop on their news channels.

9/11 was nothing compared to what some of us have experienced for several centuries on end from the start of imperialism by the western colonial powers.

No doubt it reeks of racism and intolerance and outright callous belligerent contempt for other nations and their free indigenous people to even state that the staged attacks of 9/11 were the most prominent and diabolical of all insidious and sinister conspiracy schemes to forge a New World Order.

That is just western bullshit fed to make the rest of the world sympathise for you people shooting yourselves in your own foot.

I for one was very happy with the events that transpired on the September 11, 2001 because for the first time you people understood what it feels like to get screwed in your own backyard by an unnecessary and arrogant external threat without any of you being able to escape or just ride off into the sunset.

You understood what it was like to be at the receiving end of fear and sorrow and death and tragedy and destruction and to realise with humility that you cannot escape the fruits of your own actions and that all those souls that your twisted soul group at large [mostly conceived as an inbreeding with the lower vibrational Pleaidians and regressive warrior like Orion groups] have troubled and tortured, you will now wail in the haunting cries of their memories and experiences.

Some of your New Age and spiritual researchers and fomenters actually have the ba**s to say that you will lead the entire world into a New Golden Age and through the path of Ascension. Yeah right!

Just step aside once your nation crumbles within the next 5 years and let the rest of us who have ever so been tolerant and patient with your antics step in to create true peace and harmony in along time upon this world, forever.

Remember you cannot escape Karma.

http://www.netphotograph.com/pablo/bhopal/

Check the above link to know through pictures what happened there. This was one of the world’s worst industrial catastrophes.

File:Bhopal-Union Carbide 1 crop memorial.jpg

 

 

 

Image Credit: The RootAn image that may evoke a thousand questions or silent rage or a ‘get on with it, the games  are bigger than  one part-time sponsor.’

But what if both were possible? Getting on with the game and yet having something to say during the Games ?

In the down with Dow rage, are the now ex-Olympic Ethics Commissioner, the politicians and NRIs in UK and marginally less, Indian activists and families of those who have directly suffered.

And individuals like graphic designer Nitesh Mohanty who made this disturbing image. The Dow logo being  dropped has been the only symbolic concession.

This is what he has to say.’International Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge rejected India’s calls to terminate DOW Chemicals‘ sponsorship deal for the 2012 London Games. DOW may not have created the tragedy but it cannot, from an ethical perspective, absolve itself from cleaning up the toxic mess as part of its inherited legacy. Bhopal might have long stopped being the bonfire it used to be in people’s mind, but the embers still glow. The terrifying image of the dead child’s swollen head rising from the rubble shot by Raghu Rai is a grim reminder of the industrial catastrophe. The IOC would have blood on its unifying rings that represent the five continents of the world which willingly accept healthy competition. Let the Games Begin! The world will not shed their tears for Bhopal. ‘

Vir Sanghvi offers a useful reality check and some pro-active possibilities  here for protesting when the Indian contingent enters the opening ceremony this summer. He also says, ‘The furore over Dow Chemicals sponsorship of the London Olympics and the suggestion that Indian athletes should now boycott the Games to register our protest, reveals an utter and complete lack of conscience on the part of the British organisers of the Olympics and a complete lack of imagination on the part of Indian activists.’ What he suggests is don’t sulk, but shame them imaginatively.  Is an ideal middle possible with our distinctly uncomfortable athletes at this mix of sport and politics. Busy training for the Games with hopes of Olympic glory. There has been no substantial debate in the political arena on the lethal mix that sport and real life issues can be.Bhopal is a bad memory in the nation’s psyche and the Olympics are the near future. Where then is space for the politics of the forgotten ? Tell us what you think?

the politicians and NRIs in UK

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Posted in India Forgotten, Pollution | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on The Olympics – Guts and the gory

Ancient Human Metropolis Found in Africa (cirka 200,000 Years Old)

Posted by Admin on September 30, 2011

http://viewzone2.com/adamscalendarx.html

Ancient Human Metropolis Found in Africa

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By Dan Eden for viewzone.They have always been there. People noticed them before. But no one could remember who made them — or why? Until just recently, no one even knew how many there were. Now they are everywhere — thousands — no, hundreds of thousands of them! And the story they tell is the most important story of humanity. But it’s one we might not be prepared to hear.Something amazing has been discovered in an area of South Africa, about 150 miles inland, west of the port of Maputo. It is the remains of a huge metropolis that measures, in conservative estimates, about 1500 square miles. It’s part of an even larger community that is about 10,000 square miles and appears to have been constructed — are you ready — from 160,000 to 200,000 BCE!

The image [top of page] is a close-up view of just a few hundred meters of the landscape taken from google-earth. The region is somewhat remote and the “circles” have often been encountered by local farmers who assumed they were made by some indigenous people in the past. But, oddly, no one ever bothered to inquire about who could have made them or how old they were.

This changed when researcher and author, Michael Tellinger, teamed up with Johan Heine, a local fireman and pilot who had been looking at these ruins from his years flying over the region. Heine had the unique advantage to see the number and extent of these strange stone foundations and knew that their significance was not being appreciated.

“When Johan first introduced me to the ancient stone ruins of southern Africa, I had no idea of the incredible discoveries we would make in the year or two that followed. The photographs, artifacts and evidence we have accumulated points unquestionably to a lost and never-before-seen civilization that predates all others — not by just a few hundred years, or a few thousand years… but many thousands of years. These discoveries are so staggering that they will not be easily digested by the mainstream historical and archaeological fraternity, as we have already experienced. It will require a complete paradigm shift in how we view our human history. “ — Tellinger

Where it was found

The area is significant for one striking thing — gold. “The thousands of ancient gold mines discovered over the past 500 years, points to a vanished civilization that lived and dug for gold in this part of the world for thousands of years,” says Tellinger. “And if this is in fact the cradle of humankind, we may be looking at the activities of the oldest civilization on Earth.”

To see the number and scope of these ruins, I suggest that you use google-earth and start with the following coordinates:Carolina — 25 55′ 53.28″ S / 30 16′ 13.13″ E
Badplaas — 25 47′ 33.45″ S / 30 40′ 38.76″ E
Waterval — 25 38′ 07.82″ S / 30 21′ 18.79″ E
Machadodorp — 25 39′ 22.42″ S / 30 17′ 03.25″ EThen perform a low flying search inside the area formed by this rectangle. Simply Amazing!

Did gold play some role in the dense population that once lived here? The site is just about 150 miles from an excellent port where maritime trade could have helped to support such a large population. But remember — we’re talking almost 200,000 years ago!

The individual ruins [see below] mostly consist of stone circles. Most have been buried in the sand and are only observable by satellite or aircraft. Some have been exposed when the changing climate has blown the sand away, revealing the walls and foundations.

“I see myself as a fairly open-minded chap but I will admit that it took me well over a year for the penny to drop, and for me to realise that we are actually dealing with the oldest structures ever built by humans on Earth.The main reason for this is that we have been taught that nothing of significance has ever come from southern Africa. That the powerful civilizations all emerged in Sumeria and Egypt and other places. We are told that until the settlement of the BANTU people from the north, which was supposed to have started sometime in the 12th century AD, this part of the world was filled by hunter gatherers and so-called Bushmen, who did not make any major contributions in technology or civilization.” — Tellinger

A Rich and Diverse HistoryWhen explorers first encountered these ruins, they assumed that they were cattle corals made by nomadic tribes, like the Bantu people, as they moved south and settled the land from around the 13th century. There was no previous historical record of any older civilization capable of building such a densly populated community. Little effort was made to investigate the site because the scope of the ruins was not fully known.Over the past 20 years, people like Cyril Hromnik, Richard Wade, Johan Heine and a handful of others have discovered that thesestone structures are not what the seem to be. In fact these are now believed to be the remains of ancient temples and astronomical observatories of lost ancient civilizations that stretch back for many thousands of years.

These circular ruins are spread over a huge area. They can only truly be appreciated from the air or through modern sattelite images. Many of them have almost completely eroded or have been covered by the movement of soil from farming and the weather. Some have survived well enough to reveal their great size [see above] with some originalwalls standing almost 5 feet high and over a meter wide in places.

Looking at the entire metropolis, it becomes obvious that this was a well planned community, developed by a highly evolved civilization. The number of ancient gold mines suggests the reason for the community being in this location. We find roads — some extending a hundred miles — that connected the community and terraced agriculture, closely resembling those found in the Inca settlements in Peru.

But one question begs for an answer — how could this be achieved by humans 200,000 years ago?

An example of what you will see on google-earth.

This is what you will see on google-earth at 25 37’40.90″S / 30 17’57.41E [A]. We are viewing the scene from an altitude of 357 meters.

This is not a “special” location — just one we picked at random, within the previously described area. It shows artifacts that are everywhere and we encourage you to search the area with this great internet technology.

The circular stone structures are obvious from this view, even though they may not be visible from ground level. Notice that there are many very long roads [B] that connect groups of the circular structures. If you zoom out and follow these “roads” they travel for many miles.

The fact that we can see these structures is mainly because natural erosion has blown away the dirt and debris that has covered them for thousands of years. Once exposed to the wind, the rocks are scoured clean and may appear deceptively new.

If you look closely at what first appears to be empty land [C], you will notice many faint circles, indicating that even more dwellings lurk below the surface. In reality, the entire area is packed full of these structures and connecting roads.

Why has no one notices these before?

How the Site was dated

Once the ruins were examined, the researchers were anxious to place the lost civilization in a historical perspective. The rocks were covered with a patina that looked very old but there were no items sufficient for carbon-14 dating. It was then that a chance discovery revealed the age of the site, and sent a chill down the spine of archaeologists and historians!

Dating the site:
Finding the remains of a large community, with as many as 200,000 people living and working together, was a major discovery in itself. But dating the site was a problem. The heavy patina on the rock walls suggested the structures were extremely old, but the science of dating patina is just being developed and is still controversial. Carbon-14 dating of such things as burnt wood introduces the possibility that the specimens could be from recent grass fires which are common in the area.The breakthrough came quite unexpectedly. As Tellinger describes it:

“Johan Heine discovered Adam’s Calendar in 2003, quite by accident. He was on route to find one of his pilots who crashed his plane on the edge of the cliff. Next to the crash site Johan noticed a very strange arrangement of large stones sticking out of the ground. While rescuing the injured pilot from about 20 metres down the side of the cliff, Johan walked over to the monoliths and immediately realised that they were aligned to the cardinal points of Earth — north, south, east and west. There were at least 3 monoliths aligned towards the sunrise, but on the west side of the aligned monoliths there was a mysterious hole in the ground — something was missing.After weeks and months of measuring and observations, Johan concluded that it was perfectly aligned with the rise and fall of the Sun. He determined the solstices and the equinoxes. But the mysterious hole in the ground remained a big puzzle. One day, while contemplating the reason for the hole, the local horse trail expert, Christo, came riding by. He quickly explained to Johan that there was a strange shaped stone which had been removed from the spot some time ago. Apparently it stood somewhere near the entrance to the nature reserve.

After an extensive search, Johan found the anthropomorphic (humanoid shape) stone. It was intact and proudly placed with a plaque stuck to it. It had been used by the Blue Swallow foundation to commemorate the opening of the Blue Swallow reserve in 1994. The irony is that it was removed from the most important ancient site found to date and mysteriously returned to the reserve — for slightly different reasons.

The exact location of the calendar is listed on www.makomati.com. The first calculations of the age of the calendar were made based on the rise of Orion, a constellation known for its three bright stars forming the “belt” of the mythical hunter.The Earth wobbles on its axis and so the stars and constellations change their angle of presentation in the night sky on a cyclical basis. This rotation, called the precession completes a cycle about every 26,000 years. By determining when the three stars of Orion’s belt were positioned flat (horizontal) against the horizon, we can estimate the time when the three stones in the calendar were in alignment with these conspicuous stars.

The first rough calculation was at least 25,000 years ago. But new and more precise measurements kept increasing the age. The next calculation was presented by a master archaeoastronomer who wishes to remain anonymous for fear of ridicule by the academic fraternity. His calculation was also based on the rise of Orion and suggested an age of at least 75,000 years. The most recent and most acurate calculation, done in June 2009, suggests an age of at least 160,000 years, based on the rise of Orion — flat on the horizon — but also on the erosion of dolerite stones found at the site.

Some pieces of the marker stones had been broken off and sat on the ground, exposed to natural erosion. When the pieces were put back together about 3 cm of stone had already been worn away. These calculation helped assess the age of the site by calculating the erosion rate of the dolerite.

Who made the metropolis? Why?
It would seem that humans have always valued gold. It is even mentioned in the Bible, describing the Garden of Eden’s rivers:Genesis 2:11 — The name of the first [river] is Pishon; it flows around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.South Africa is known as the largest gold producing country of the world. The largest gold producing area of the world is Witwatersrand, the same region where the ancient metropolis is found. In fact nearby Johannesburg, one of the best known cities of South Africa, is also named “Egoli” which means the city of gold.

GOLD MINING — HOW LONG AGO?Is there evidence that mining took place, in southern Africa, during the Old Stone Age? Archaeological studies indicate that it indeed was so.Realizing that sites of abandoned ancient mines may indicate where gold could be found, South Africa’s leading mining corporation, the Anglo-American Corporation, in the 1970s engaged archaeologists to look for such ancient mines. Published reports (Optima) detail the discovery in Swaziland and other sites in South Africa of extensive mining areas with shafts to depths of fifty feet. Stone objects and charcoal remains established dates of 35,000, 46,000, and 60,000 B.C. for these sites. The archaeologists and anthropologists who joined in dating the finds believed that mining technology was used in south- ern Africa “during much of the period subsequent to 100,000 B.C.”

In September 1988, a team of international physicists came to South Africa to verify the age of human habitats in Swaziland and Zululand. The most modern techniques indicated an age of 80,000 to 115,000 years.

Regarding the most ancient gold mines of Monotapa in southern Zimbabwe, Zulu legends hold that they were worked by “artificially produced flesh and blood slaves created by the First People.” These slaves, the Zulu legends recount, “went into battle with the Ape-Man” when “the great war star appeared in the sky” (see Indaba My Children, by the Zulu medicine man Credo Vusamazulu Mutwa). [Genesis Revisited]

It seems highly probable that the ancient metropolis was established because of its proximity to the largest supply of gold on the planet. But why would ancient people work so hard to mine gold? You can’t eat it. It’s too soft to use for tool making. It isn’t really useful for anything except ornaments and its physical beauty is on a par with other metals like copper or silver. Exactly why was gold so important to early homo sapiens?

To explore the answer we need to look at the period of history in question — 160,000 to 200,000 years BCE — and learn what was happening on planet Earth.

What were humans like 160,000 years ago?Modern humans, homo sapiens, can trace our ancestry back through time to a point where our species evolved from other, more primitive, hominids. Scientists do not understand why this new type of human suddenlyappeared, or how the change happened, but we can trace our genes back to a single female that is known as “Mitochondrial Eve”.Mitochondrial Eve (mt-mrca) [Right: An artist’s rendition] is the name given by researchers to the woman who is defined as the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for all currently living humans. Passed down from mother to offspring, all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in every living person is derived from this one female individual. Mitochondrial Eve is the female counterpart of Y-chromosomal Adam, the patrilineal most recent common ancestor, although they lived at different times.

Mitochondrial Eve is believed to have lived between 150,000 to 250,000 years BP, probably in East Africa, in the region of Tanzania and areas to the immediate south and west. Scientists speculate that she lived in a population of between perhaps 4000 to 5000 females capable of producing offspring at any given time. If other females had offspring with the evolutionary changes to their DNA we have no record of their survival. It appears that we are all descendants of this one human female.

Mitochondrial Eve would have been roughly contemporary with humans whose fossils have been found in Ethiopia near the Omo River and at Hertho. Mitochondrial Eve lived significantly earlier than the out of Africa migration which might have occurred some 60,000 to 95,000 years ago.

[right] The region in Africa where one can find the greatest level of mitochondrial diversity (green) and the region anthropologists postulated the most ancient division in the human population began to occur (light brown). The ancient metropolis in located in this latter (brown) region which also corresponds to the estimated age when the genetic changes suddenly happened.

Could this be a coincidence?

Ancient Sumerian history describes the ancient metropolis and its inhabitants!I’ll be honest with you. This next part of the story is difficult to write. It’s so shocking that the average person will not want to believe it. If you are like me, you’ll want to do the research yourself, then allow some time for the facts to settle in your mind.We are often made to believe that the Egyptians — the Pharoahs and pyramids — are where our known history begins. The oldest dynasties go back some 3200 years BP. That’s a long time ago. But the Sumerian civilization, in what is now Iraq, is much older. What’s more, we have translated many of their history tablets, written in cuneiform and earlier scripts so we know a lot about their history and legends.

The seal image [above] depicts the legend of the “Great Flood” which consumed mankind. Many Sumerian legends are strikingly similar to Genesis. Like Genesis, the Sumerian legend,Atrahasis, tells the story of the creation of modern humans — not by a loving God — but by beings from another planet who needed “slave workers” to help them mine gold on their extra-planetary expedition!

I warned that this is difficult to believe, but please keep reading.

Who made the metropolis? Why?
This story, the Atrahasis, comes from an early Babylonian version of about 1700 BC, but it certainly dates back to Sumerian times. It combines familiar Sumerian motifs of the creation of mankind and the subsequent flood — just like Genesis.The story starts out with the “gods” — beings from a planet called Nibiru — digging ditches and mining for gold as part of an expeditionary team. Modern humans (homo sapiens) did not exist yet; only primitive hominids lived on Earth. There were two groups of “gods”, the worker class and the ruling class (i.e. officers). The worker gods had built the infrastructure as well as toiled in the gold mines and, after thousands of years, the work was apparently too much for them.The gods had to dig out the canals
Had to clear channels,
the lifelines of the land,
The gods dug out the Tigris river bed
And then they dug out the Euphrates.
 –(Dalley 9, Atrahasis)

After 3,600 years of this work, the gods finally begin to complain. They decide to go on strike, burning their tools and surrounding the chief god Enlil’s “dwelling” (his temple). Enlil’s vizier, Nusku, gets Enlil out of bed and alerts him to the angry mob outside. Enlil is scared. (His face is described as being “sallow as a tamarisk.”) The vizier Nusku advises Enlil to summon the other great gods, especially Anu (sky-god) and Enki (the clever god of the fresh waters). Anu advises Enlil to ascertain who is the ringleader of the rebellion. They send Nusku out to ask the mob of gods who is their leader. The mob answers, “Every single one of us gods has declared war!” (Dalley 12, Atrahasis).

Since the upper-class gods now see that the work of the lower-class gods “was too hard,” they decide to sacrifice one of the rebels for the good of all. They will take one god, kill him, and make mankind by mixing the god’s flesh and blood with clay:

Belit-ili the womb-goddess is present,
Let the womb-goddess create offspring,
And let man bear the load of the gods!
 (Dalley 14-15, Atrahasis)

After Enki instructs them on purification rituals for the first, seventh and fifteenth of every month, the gods slaughter Geshtu-e, “a god who had intelligence” (his name means “ear” or “wisdom”) and form mankind from his blood and some clay. After the birth goddess mixes the clay, all the gods troop by and spit on it. Then Enki and the womb-goddess take the clay into “the room of fate,” where The womb-goddesses were assembled.

He [Enki] trod the clay in her presence;
She kept reciting an incantation,
For Enki, staying in her presence, made her recite it.
When she had finished her incantation,
She pinched off fourteen pieces of clay,
And set seven pieces on the right,
Seven on the left.
Between them she put down a mud brick.
 (Dalley 16, Atrahasis)

The creation of man seems to be described as a type of cloning and what we would today consider in vitro fertilization.The result was a hybrid or “evolved human” with enhanced intellect who could perform the physical duties of the worker gods and also take care of the needs of all the gods.

We are told, in other texts, that the expedition came for gold and that great quantities were mined and shipped off the planet. The community in South Africa was called “Abzu” and was the prime location of the mining operation.

Since these events appear to coincide with the dates of “Mitochondrial Eve” (i.e. 150,000 to 250,000 BP) and appear to be located in the richest gold mining region on the planet (Abzu), some researchers are thinking that the Sumerian legends may, in fact, be based on historical events.

According to the same texts, once the mining expedition ended it was decided that the human population should be allowed to perish in a flood which was predicted by the atronomer of the “gods.” Apparently, the cyclical passage of the home planet of the gods, Nibiru, was going to bring it close enough to the orbit of Earth that its gravity would cause the oceans to rise and flood the land, putting an end to the hybrid species — homo sapiens.

According to the story, one of the “gods” had sympathy for a particular human, Zuisudra, and warned him to construct a boat to ride out the flood. This eventually became the basis for the story of Noah in the book of Genesis.

Did this really happen? The only other explanation is to imagine that the Sumerian legends, acknowledging life on other planets and human cloning, were extraordinary science-fiction. This in itself would be amazing. But we now have evidence that the mining city, Abzu, is real and that it existed in the same era as the sudden evolution of hominids to homo sapiens.

Just think about this for a while.

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10 More Unsolved Mysteries of the World

Posted by Admin on May 15, 2011

http://listverse.com/2008/07/23/10-more-unsolved-mysteries-of-the-world/#3

10 More Unsolved Mysteries of the World

There is no doubt that some of our most popular lists are ones which revolve around mystery and intrigue. Fortunately for us all, there is no end to the number of weird and wonderful mysteries in the world, so we are now able to present our fourth list of unsolved mysteries. So – onwards to the world of the mysterious!

Grooved Spheres

Over the last few decades, miners in South Africa have been digging up mysterious metal spheres. Origin unknown, these spheres measure approximately an inch or so in diameter, and some are etched with three parallel grooves running around the equator. Two types of spheres have been found: one is composed of a solid bluish metal with flecks of white; the other is hollowed out and filled with a spongy white substance. The kicker is that the rock in which they where found is Precambrian – and dated to 2.8 billion years old! Who made them and for what purpose is unknown.

9

The Dropa Stones

Dropastones-China

In 1938, an archaeological expedition led by Dr. Chi Pu Tei into the Baian-Kara-Ula mountains of China made an astonishing discovery in some caves that had apparently been occupied by some ancient culture. Buried in the dust of ages on the cave floor were hundreds of stone disks. Measuring about nine inches in diameter, each had a circle cut into the center and was etched with a spiral groove, making it look for all the world like some ancient phonograph record some 10,000 to 12,000 years old. The spiral groove, it turns out, is actually composed of tiny hieroglyphics that tell the incredible story of spaceships from some distant world that crash-landed in the mountains. The ships were piloted by people who called themselves the Dropa, and the remains of whose descendants, possibly, were found in the cave.

8

The Ica Stones

Ica Stones-1

Beginning in the 1930s, the father of Dr. Javier Cabrera, Cultural Anthropologist for Ica, Peru, discovered many hundreds of ceremonial burial stones in the tombs of the ancient Incas. Dr. Cabrera, carrying on his father’s work, has collected more than 1,100 of these andesite stones, which are estimated to be between 500 and 1,500 years old and have become known collectively as the Ica Stones. The stones bear etchings, many of which are sexually graphic (which was common to the culture), some picture idols and others depict such practices as open-heart surgery and brain transplants. The most astonishing etchings, however, clearly represent dinosaurs – brontosaurs, triceratops (see photo), stegosaurus and pterosaurs. While sceptics consider the Ica Stones a hoax, their authenticity has neither been proved or disproved.

Stone-Balls-Costa-Rica

Workmen hacking and burning their way through the dense jungle of Costa Rica to clear an area for banana plantations in the 1930s stumbled upon some incredible objects: dozens of stone balls, many of which were perfectly spherical. They varied in size from as small as a tennis ball to an astonishing 8 feet in diameter and weighing 16 tons! Although the great stone balls are clearly man-made, it is unknown who made them, for what purpose and, most puzzling, how they achieved such spherical precision.

6

Oera Linda Book

300Px-Manuscript Thet Oera Linda Bok, Pagina 48

The Oera Linda Book is a controversial Frisian manuscript covering historical, mythological, and religious themes that first came to light in the 19th century. Themes running through the Oera Linda Book include catastrophism, nationalism, matriarchy, and mythology. The text alleges that Europe and other lands were, for most of their history, ruled by a succession of folk-mothers presiding over a hierarchical order of celibate priestesses dedicated to the goddess Frya, daughter of the supreme god Wr-alda and Irtha, the earth mother. The claim is also made that this Frisian civilization possessed an alphabet which was the ancestor of Greek and Phoenician alphabets. The current manuscript carries a date of 1256. Internal claims suggest that it is a copy of older manuscripts that, if genuine, would have been written by multiple people between 2194 BC and AD 803. [Source]

5
Impossible Fossils

Human Fossil

Fossils, as we learned in grade school, appear in rocks that were formed many thousands of years ago. Yet there are a number of fossils that just don’t make geological or historical sense. A fossil of a human hand print for example, was found in limestone estimated to be 110 million years old. What appears to be a fossilized human finger found in the Canadian Arctic also dates back 100 to 110 million years ago. And what appears to be the fossil of a human footprint, possibly wearing a sandal, was found near Delta, Utah in a shale deposit estimated to be 300 million to 600 million years old.

4

Out-of-Place Metal Objects

Out Of Place Metal

Humans were not even around 65 million years ago, never mind people who could work metal. So then how does science explain semi-ovoid metallic tubes dug out of 65-million-year-old Cretaceous chalk in France? In 1885, a block of coal was broken open to find a metal cube obviously worked by intelligent hands. In 1912, employees at an electric plant broke apart a large chunk of coal out of which fell an iron pot! A nail was found embedded in a sandstone block from the Mesozoic Era. And there are many, many more such anomalies.

3

Ark Of The Covenant

Ark Of The Covenant

The Ark is considered the greatest of all hidden treasures and its discovery would provide indisputable truth that the Old Testament is hard fact. Its recovery remains the goal of every modern archaeologist and adventurer. Its purpose was as a container for the ten commandments given on stone tablets by God to Moses on Mount Sinai. According to the book of Exodus, the Ark is made of shittim wood (similar to acacia) and gold-covered inside and out. It was topped by a mercy seat comprising two cherubs also made of gold. It was believed to have supernatural powers due to several events, including causing the death of a man, who attempted to steady the Ark as the oxen hauling it stumbled, bringing down the walls of Jericho in one battle, and showering misfortune on the Philistines after they captured it in another. There are several speculations around the final resting place of the Ark, and whilst it would take a shrewd operator to find it, it would need a brave or even foolhardy person to open it!

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Angel Hair

Angel Hair

Angel Hair is a rare phenomenon that has so far defied explanation. It is made up of silken threads that rain down on to the earth, but reach out to touch it and it will almost certainly vanish before your eyes. It is a world wide phenomenon with the most regular occurrences from North America, New Zealand, Australia, and western Europe. There is no known proof for what causes this substance, or even what it is made up of. Speculations are that it has come from Spiders or another type of silk-spinning insect, and even UFO’s as it has often been associated with UFO sightings. Because of its sensitive nature, it has been difficult to collect, and to analyse as it is subject to contamination from car exhaust fumes, and even human contact, which could skew the chemical results.

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Piri Reis map

300Px-Piri Reis World Map 01

The Piri Reis Map is a famous pre-modern world map created by 16th century Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. The map shows part of the western coasts of Europe and North Africa with reasonable accuracy, and the coast of Brazil is also easily recognizable. Various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands are depicted, as is the mythical island of Antillia. The map is noteworthy for its depiction of a southern landmass that some controversially claim is evidence for early awareness of the existence of Antarctica. Some scholars claim this and other maps support a theory of global exploration by a pre-classical undiscovered civilization. [Source]

This article is licensed under the GFDL because it contains some quotations from Wikipedia.

Additional text for this article is courtesy of The Skeptical News.

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A different story about the Annunaki

Posted by Admin on April 12, 2011

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sumer_anunnaki/anunnaki/anu_12.htm#inicio

Introduction

For those of you who are Sitchin fans, you may notice some similarities between his information and mine. I respect the exhaustive research he has done, and the great scholar that he is. He contributed to opening up our planet’s memory of the Anunnaki. Scholastic and intellectual viewpoints and written documents are of value and add one part to understanding who we are. However, I feel we must not rule out our holographic, multidimensional viewpoints as being of equal value.

This is what I present to you.


I don’t agree with all of Sitchin’s data, and I include a lot that he does not. There have been many viewpoints from many different writers about the Anunnaki. Most of my information comes from personal memories and channeled information. And, similarities will also exist between certain channels because deeper truth is consistent; those who can channel or tap into universal energies on their own will also receive many parallels to this story. [My personal memories and more about me and Enki can be found in my article Nakmemories.]

I have something I’d like to add here – the Anunnaki had bases around the world, but primarily in the Middle East – Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Iraq – and in India and South Africa. There are many artifacts that still exist in Iraq but are not allowed to be seen, and the West has not had much access at all to these artifacts of the Anunnaki. It is my understanding that Saddam Hussein has hoarded many of these and kept many in private vaults under the ground. It is my hope that governments will encourage the Iraqi people who have access to these artifacts to bring them out and share them with the world.

Much still lies beneath the sands and it would be fantastic for humanity to be able to uncover the past in this region. Ur, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, was the birthplace of humanity in modern times on Plan-ET Earth, the Garden of Eden, and everyone is entitled to have safe access to it. Therein lies many eophysical keys to remembering who we all are. (Please see the addendum to this article for a more complete explanation of how the war with Iraq is related to the Anunnaki, added April, 2003.)

Special update on May 1, 2003: The Tomb of Gilgamesh is thought to have been found in Iraq. The story can be read here and please note the comments on the canals, which Enki built.


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Preface


Humans were not only created by G-d, but are also genetically, symbolically and literally, related to a few off-planet civilizations; one particularly known on Earth as the Anunnaki.

[If you believe humans evolved solely from apes, why, then, are there still apes?]

Our story, (a term which replaces “history”, because “our story” belongs to all of us), of human life on Earth is often told as creation myths, the planets in the heavens.

But these myths were based on something – – – fact. This is why, around the world, we see the same tales of how one ’god’ was instrumental in assisting humanity during creation, the great flood, bringing knowledge to humanity. All cultures have their own creation stories of the ’gods and goddesses,’ beings on ships that came from the skies (often wearing masks or strange clothing and possessed some amazing abilities), giants (Anakim), war epochs between two sides of a family, and all over the Earth we also share very similar artwork, music and technology, largely based on extraterrestrial activity and intervention. From Lemuria to Atlantis to Sumeria to Egypt. These portray the story of our cosmos, the constellations, sun and moon, and put into human and “god” forms.

Personally, I feel that much of what we attribute to the Anunnaki was not their own doing. For instance, I think that the Anunnaki were limited in their abilities, yet were given credit for doing things that were done by other alien species. But, as human beings saw the Anunnaki as gods and goddesses, they naturally transferred credit to the Annunaki, because they were more tangible, something they could see, make an image of, and so forth. In this article you will see some comparisons between B’raisheet (Genesis) and the written history the Anunnaki.

Although this may not be for everybody (because some people simply aren’t interested or curious about any of this stuff), why could it be of value to examine our past in this particular way, with our connections to extraterrestrials, as well as with our past lifetimes? Because when we re-member more of who we are, why we continue to repeat patterns without understanding them, then we can be more of our whole selves in a way that is free from old baggage. We can have clear knowledge of ourselves, accept ourselves, heal what needs healing, and create what we want to have for our future.

Or, to quote from a popular TV show (“Kung Fu: The Legend Continues”):

“The seeds of destiny are nurtured by our roots in the past.”

If you want to know what the Anunnaki looked like, one easy way is to see the crop circle from 2001 called the first Chilbolton Face in Hampshire.

Mention the name Anunnaki to some people and deep within them something stirs; a memory of Earth and Mars – and often there is anger, fear, pain, and confusion about the Anunnaki. People seem to like to blame them for all of Earth’s problems. Some people remember being part of their family, for better or worse.

And yet others don’t want to hear anything about them because it dredges up feelings they’d rather avoid or deny. I even hear stories from people who think that the Anunnaki are vicious reptilians who have been battling for control over the Earth for the last half a million years, and they call all of the shots while we sit here like helpless pawns. I feel that A LOT of what we’ve learned about the Anunnaki was via bad press due to incorrect translations and the need to have a scapegoat. Do I agree with everything the Anunnaki did, or they way in which they did things? No.

They had good sides and also some really awful sides. There were different Anunnaki factions, and there were aliens who gave the impression they were Anunnakis. This article presents some of each. What they did was their responsibility and I’m not about to excuse or even attempt the impossible, which would be to vindicate their actions.

The Anunnaki are archetypal, symbolic, and mythic, too. So, we may each feel a certain personal identification with one or more of them, which is a very interesting phenomenon to investigate. Because people feel a reaction to the Anunnaki, it is a HUGE key that our personal feelings and memories (emotional and cellular) about the Anunnaki still influence us today. In other words, these archetypes are within ourselves. Joseph Campbell stated that, “myths are clues to the spiritual potentialities of the human life.” We seek the experience, the rapture of life, and myths help us as guides through life, show us what we are capable of, and mirroring what we feel. We can use the mythology of the Anunnaki as a way to understand and heal ourselves.

From Enki and Enlil, Cain and Abel, Jacob and Esau, Joseph and his brothers, Moses and Ramses, Hatshepsut and Tuthmose, Akhenaten’s one god versus the many deities; Inanna (with her insatiable greed for power and adoration who still failed to realize that without her possessions she was nothing); Jehovah and Adoni; Sin (a.k.a. Nanna, Allah); the war over who controls Israel.

We have seen brother go against brother (the main theme), religions and governments against others, men against women and women against men up into current times. I feel it’s time to get over the past (not necessarily forget it), and heal a lot. It is my hope that through such understanding of who we are, we can resolve ancient battles between nations and heal bitterness and hurts that have held us back from fully enjoying our lives and being the creators that we are RIGHT NOW. It’s time to remember who the false gods were and who the real G-d is….the One that is in charge of it all, that is within us; the one that transcends definition.

The return of love/G-d (and the G-d as the common source within us all that is synchronicity, wisdom – love and light) is not only required for our survival, I feel it is eminent. Examining the deep, dark secrets within and healing them can help us accomplish this faster, I think. The most important event that took place when the Anunnakis ruled the Earth was that man rebelled against slavery and demanded sovereignty, and received it. The Anunnaki left. At the end of this article is more information along these lines about what this means for us as a civilization.

My thanks go to my higher self, and Enki for helping me, for all of his love and care he gives to me and to all of life.


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In the beginning…..


When the Source (G-d) created souls in order to be able to reflect back to itself what it was, beings later manifested in the constellation of Lyra. These were the first “creator gods” (the Council of Twelve and Elohim) who knew how to create matter from light. And create they did – planets, stars, universes, life forms for themselves, and eventually others.

The Lyran’s physical lifetimes lasted for approximately one thousand years. In time, however, their life span decreased. They sought out something that would enable them to live longer lives so that they could experience the wonder and miracle of existence. They found that gold not only increased their longevity, but provided them with a superconductivity which gave them the ability to be very telepathic and experience their multidimensionality.

Many thousands of years passed, and the beings from Lyra spread out into the cosmos and created new civilizations. Some went to Vega, others the Pleiades, and yet others Sirius. But, they knew (more or less) of their roots in Lyra/Vega and Sirius and that they were creator gods, at that point a.k.a. the Watchers. The search for gold to maintain their longevity continued because, unfortunately, their source for this magical substance was not forever lasting. Their planet (part of Sirius) was destroyed and their lives were doomed. They had to find another way of living – elsewhere.

The following universal history information is from Bashar (channeled by Darryl Anka), and Enki [through myself]:

 

“Approximately 4.6 billion years ago in our solar system there existed: Mercury, Venus, Mars (no moons), a 4th planet (larger than Earth with many moons, including a large one), Jupiter, Saturn (no rings), Uranus, Neptune and Pluto (which was a satellite of Saturn).

“4 billion years ago, another planet came into our still forming solar system. This planet had its own moons. It arrived at approximately the same orbit as the 4th planet called Maldek – the one that existed beyond Mars. Mars was then the 3rd planet. [Please read the Sumerian Epic of Creation – the Enuma Elish, as this says it all and explains the importance of the Tablets of Destiny.]

“This planet’s moons impacted the 4th planet shattering it so that part of it became the Asteroid Belt. The remnant of the impact (as it cooled and moved into a tighter orbit around the sun) became the Earth and brought with it the large planet that was the moon of the 4th planet. This is our moon. Approx. 67% of the former planet is Earth. Earth brought with it water – but there was water on the other planet, as well. As it reformed and became a sphere again, the rift where the shattering took place is now the Pacific Ocean area.

“This other planet was responsible for shattering the moons gravitationally that caused Saturn’s rings and for turning Uranus on its side, so that it has a highly inclined axis. And – this also caused Pluto to release from Saturn and come into its own orbit.”

This planet, of course, that caused all the havoc was/is Nibiru. It is our 10th planet – not really the 12th. In the late 1980’s it was about halfway back.

Bases were set up on the Moon. Mars’ moons – Phobos and Deimos, are remnants of that original impact that created the Asteroid Belt. These moons have been used for bases and minerals and water.

[The above information on the solar system is recorded in ancient texts, and has been accessed through memory and channelings by myself, in sessions by Bashar, and other entities.]

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Next phase

The group of beings who originated in Lyra later split up and evolved into Vegans, Sirians and Pleiadeans, are known as the Anunnaki. This particular group is attributed to having their own satellite. Their “planet” (which is partially artificial) was considered to be Nibiru. However, Nibiru is not really the home of the Anunnaki. Sirius was.

Nibiru was made up of what I’d call space pirates who imitated other beings, and sometimes a few from one planet would join them, including the Anunnaki. I’ve seen these pirates – they’re not at all like the real Anunnaki. The story of the Anunnaki has been mixed up with these pirates through time so some see the Anunnaki as being only evil.

(Some of the Anunnaki also were present on Mars before it was destroyed, and here’s an article that talks about Mars.)

The name “Anunnaki” can mean many different things [based on Hebrew interpretations] – it is rich with meaning.

  • “An” is short for “anachnu,” which means “we”

  • “An” also means “heaven”

  • “Naki” means “clean”

So, the name can mean “We are clean” and “heaven is clean,” clean as in “pure.” “Ki” means “Earth,” so “We are here on Earth.” “Heaven is on Earth.” “Anu is here on Earth.” The “we” is also meant as a collective oneness, of the Source.

They were tall, giant, (in Hebrew the word for giants is “Anakim”) and have also been called the Nordics or Blonds, even though not all of them had blond hair or blue eyes. It is easy to see their Lyran and Sirian roots in their appearance. They also glowed a golden color. Their symbol is the winged disk, which not only represents their starships, but also symbolic of the ability of the spirit to fly free while remembering it’s wise, divine source. These Anunnaki were later called the Elohim, and Nephilim (those who descended, came down). However, they were NOT “the” Elohim, but Elohim became the word used for the plural of god.

In B’raisheet (Genesis) 6:4 it is written:

“The Lord said, “My breath shall not abide in man forever, since he too is flesh; let the days be allowed him be one hundred and twenty years.” It was then, and later too, that the Nephilim appeared on earth – when the divine beings cohabited with the daughters of men, who bore them offspring. They were the heroes of old, men of renown.”

It is thought, by some, that the Nephilim were sinful gods who “fell from grace.” They fell, alright, in their spaceships. This can also be seen as symbolic. The “fall” having to do with lowering one’s frequency from spirit into physical matter, which is slower and denser. “Fall” also meaning forgetting one’s true Source. As life forms choose to come to Earth their vibration goes through changes so that they are more matched to the frequency of Earth, their new home.

Now these ETs literally came down from space, but souls choosing to incarnate upon the earth also had to change their vibrational frequencies. Enlil was first to come to Earth and was there even before mankind was created. The Sumerian texts called mankind the “Black-Headed People.”

If anyone doubts the location of Eden, or why it was chosen by the Anunnaki as a locale, please read on from Genesis:

“Then, before there was any rain, he formed man, from the dust of the earth. He blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being. The Lord God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and placed there the man whom He had formed…”,

and then all the other life forms came into being, water, animals, minerals. Genesis does say that the first river in Eden was Pishon and winds through the whole land of Havilah, where the gold is – the gold of that land is good; bdellium is there, and lapis lazuli. The name of the second river is Gihon, the one that winds through the whole land of Cush. The name of the third river is Tigris, the one that flows east of Asshur.

And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

[For more Biblical references to the Anakim, Anakites, Anunnaki, Nephilim, etc., please see:

  • Numbers: 13:22; 13:28-33;

  • Deut: 1:28; 2:1-; 9:2;

  • Joshua: 11:21-22; 14:12; 14:15; 15:13-14;

  • Judges: 1:20. Many of these giants were the result of Anunnaki and human reproduction, such as Gilgamesh]

Being a dreamtime medicine person, I traveled to this place of human’s origins and saw the space pirates who gave the impression of being the Anunnaki. This was on the border of Iran and Iraq at Lake Zaga. This lake no longer exists, as it has been covered up by sand, but it exists inside the earth and interdimensionally.

To date no one else has ever talked about Lake Zaga or knows where it is – that is, aside from myself and channeled entities who have confirmed my visions and memories of it. I would like to find someone who can provide me with archaeological, geological evidence that this place once existed. I also know the language of the place, and how there are underground facilities, passageways, there. It was once controlled by the Anunnaki. There are many interesting details of how this place once looked, but I am preserving this information for another time.

This is part of Earth’s story and occurred after there already was life on Earth, hominid beings. Hominids are distinctly human-like creatures, different from apes or chimpanzees. The Anunnaki came to Earth (some of their crafts had crashed in the process), for a haven for themselves, and found it rich with gold, copper, silver and other minerals. They felt that here was their last chance for longevity, survival and the gold was the best conductor of energy which had many important uses. They mined gold for a very long time – hundreds of thousands of years by our standards; for theirs only a few weeks have passed.

What, according to the Old Testament happened? God said,

“Now that the man has become like one of us, knowing good and bad, what if he should stretch out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever!”

So man was banished from Eden to work the soil from which he was taken.

Further on in Genesis, we read:

“The Lord saw how great was man’s wickedness on earth, and how every plan devised by his mind was nothing but evil all the time. And the Lord regretted that He had made man on earth, and His heart was saddened. The Lord said, “I will blot out from the earth the men whom I created – men together with beasts, creeping things, and birds of the sky; for I regret that I made them.” But Noah found favor with the Lord….For My part, I am about to bring the Flood – waters upon the earth – to destroy all flesh under the sky in which there is breath of life; everything on earth shall perish. But I will establish My covenant with you, and you shall enter the ark, with your sons…””

This ark was symbolic and literal, not only a ship, but a covenant.

Stephanie Dalley, author and translator, states from her book “Myths From Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh and Others” (1991) that in the “Epic of Creation” (the epic which explains the history of the cosmos, and the Anunnaki as creator gods), the key element involves the possession of the Tablets of Destinies (which I will discuss at a later time because it’s very relevant to today).

There also could have been several different versions spread around retelling the Epic. About the Epic, Ms. Dally writes:

“Here is no struggle against fate, no mortal heroes, no sense of suspense over the outcome of events. The success of the hero-god Marduk is a foregone conclusion. None of the good gods is injured or killed; no tears are shed. Yet cosmic events are narrated: the earliest generations of the gods are recounted leading up to the birth of the latest hero-god; the forces of evil and chaos are overcome, whereupon the present order of the universe can be established, with its religious centers, its divisions of time, its celestial bodies moving according to proper rules, and with mankind invented to serve the does.

The gods themselves behave in an orderly fashion: they assemble, discuss, agree, and elect their leaders in a gathering of males; after Tiamat’s primeval parturition and the spawning of monsters, goddesses play no part in creating the civilized world, not even in creating mankind.”

[p. 228]

However, I find this hard to believe because without a female donor, beings could not procreate, not give birth, and so on. There have been many women I have personally met who remember being birth goddesses, used by the aliens to have embryos implanted within them, to go through the pregnancies and give birth, then raise the children – if they survived.

Dalley also writes that in the Atrahasis, the mother goddess, Ninhursag/Ninharsag-Ki, (Mami, Nintu, who I abbreviate as “Nin”), with Ea, make man out of clay, mixed with the blood from a god slain by Nin, Geshtu-e:

“A ghost came into existence from the god’s flesh, And she (Nin) proclaimed it as his living sign. The ghost existed so as not to forget (the slain god).”

Mixing and concocting continues and the “womb-goddesses” (creator of fate) were assembled. When birthing time arrived, Nin served as the mid-wife. The ghost is the spirit, the breath, divine life force, that was NOT created by the Anunnaki. This is only created by The Source.

[Personal note: My spelling of Ninhursag is how the name is spoken, and how it is in my memory. When analyzed numerologically, it has a number of 111, which according to Norma Smith, Expert Analyst and Ph.D. in Universal Harmonics Analysis, is a master triple number, and its meaning is DNA template for humanity. I think Sitchin’s spelling of the name as Ninharsag is to justify his translation of the name through Hebrew – “har” meaning “mountain.” Ninharsag has a value of 91 and means “spirit” and “oneness.” So, it is more of a spiritual name for Ninhursag.]

In Dalley’s own translation of the Epic, Tiamat is a female who is plotted against by her own family, and then has the tables turned on her by her lover Kingu (Qingu, or Zu) and the Anunnaki, after she gives him the Tablets of Destiny – the Anu power. Ea, married to Damkina, overhears the plot and takes the fate into his own hands, slaying Apsu and Mummu. Afterwards he rested in his own quarters and named them Apsu and made his home there. Here is where he and Damkina created their son Marduk, and Marduk was raised by a nurse and he was suckled by the goddesses.

What follows in the Epic is a war (created by accusations and conspiracies back and forth) between the forces of Anshar, his son Anu, his son EA, and his son Marduk against Tiamat and Kingu. Marduk slays Tiamat – of womankind – the gods rejoice and make Marduk their leader. Marduk took back the Tablets of Destinies and became the king of the entire universe.

Let’s remember that we’re talking about extraterrestrials here, (symbolic and literal); not THE Source.

Some of these beings were very wise and knew how to transform energy/light into matter. They were/are seeders. Basically, the Anunnaki who came to Earth were not terribly different from where we are today in terms of scientific development. According to the Enuma Elish, the idea occurred to Marduk that they could create a being that would mine the gold for them and then the gods could take it easy.

They used the blood (DNA) of slain Kingu and combined it with a humanoid being on Earth. After many various experiments in which they created other races, (and they had many horrible failures, as well), they created a hybrid being (Adam, Adapa) which evolved into modern human.

It is written,

“He created mankind from his blood, Imposed the toil of the gods (on man) and released the gods from it. When Ea the wise had created mankind, Had imposed the toil of the gods on them – That deed is impossible to describe…”

In both the Enuma Elish and Atrahasis the reason for creating man is the same – to relieve the gods of hard labor. Why there are different versions of this story of creation is more speculative than concretely known.

But we can assume that a couple of reasons could be the era in which the Epics were written, who was in power at the time, and who wanted to praise one god over another god or goddess.

Actually, the name “human” can be traced to Enki (a.k.a. EA). HU is a transliteration of the ancient Sumerian EA (Grimms’ law of interchangeable letters and sounds). Isis (pronounced Ish-Ish, which is interesting, because in Hebrew ’Ish’ means ’man’) was Enki’s mother. Isis was not Nibiruan; she was Sirian, with some Orion connections. His father was Anu. (Anu and his official wife, Antu, had a son named Enlil.)

HU was also Horus, by the way, therefore another connection to Ninhursag, a.k.a. Hathor. What about EArth? EN.KI is “lord of earth.” In the early days on Earth, Enki’s symbol was the crescent moon with a bearded, olden god surrounded with flowing water. The crescent moon relates to science, measuring, the oceans/tides – Enki’s specialties. In later years, the crescent moon developed another association – keep reading. In other ancient “mythology” Enki is known as Oannes, Ptah, Quezecotl, even as his own son, Thoth.

The Anunnaki (who some call the Nephilim) later procreated with the beings who were on Earth at that time. The souls of those who became human came to Earth by their own free will to experience physicality. Several other extraterrestrial civilizations later contributed their own input into human DNA and created many races of humans and other creatures (a couple of which have since left this planet – such as the dinosaurs). However, these hybrids (our missing link in our evolution) helped the Anunnaki mine their gold.

As seems pretty obvious thus far, the Anunnaki were pattern-makers, the creators of archetypes and a part of the template for human life on Earth. Throughout all cultures on Earth the same story of these gods (albeit with different names depending on where you are), their gifts to humanity, their failures, their characteristics, their loves, their battles and the results of such warfare are recorded in literature, ritual, art, oral tradition and religion. Astrology is one of the major sciences they brought to Earth, and each main god/goddess had their own constellation. The Anunnaki gave the humans knowledge of how to be this human being, how to take care of themselves, gave them guidelines, rules, for proper living.

And yet, at times they were also manipulators, and as long as people didn’t upset the “gods” they were safe and provided for. After some time, the humans evolved to a point where they began to question their purpose and their future. They rebelled against their “creators,” the Anunnaki. The humans wanted to have the nectar of the gods for themselves. Why shouldn’t they be able to have their free will, live as long as their gods did? Why shouldn’t they have power and wealth or whatever they felt they lacked?

And then the sad realization that they were NOT like “the gods.” Read the early sad epics of Enkidu and Gilgamesh who desperately wanted to be divine and have everlasting life, only to find out that their mortal side won out.

You will also find out more about the flood and the Anunnaki from the Epic of Gilgamesh.

The Anunnaki discussed the possible consequences if they shared the gold (the process of alchemy) with the humans. Some of the Anunnaki, such as the Sirian leader, Enki, were in favor of letting humans be free and equal to them. Other Anunnaki were angry because of the blending of the two life forms and the continual complaints humans had to the Anunnaki.

One of the Anunnaki leaders who had no patience for humans was EN.LIL. Enlil was the Prince of heaven and Earth. He was in charge of airspace, he was chief of the gods and Lord of Sumer. Enki and Enlil were half brothers through the same father, Anu, who was the leader of this Anunnaki group. They also had to contend with Marduk (one of Enki’s sons) who was proclaimed the greatest king of the gods. In later years, the symbol of the crescent moon was associated with Nanna/Sin (Enlil’s and Ninlil’s son), who Sinai was named for, and who became known as Allah.

Note the symbol (with the star) is used in Islam and is directly related to Enlil’s side of the family. This is proof of the battle for power by the two camps of Anunnaki, those of Enki versus those of Enlil – actually a terrible, nuclear war between the Anunnaki took place in the Sinai, and at the Great Pyramid, for control over the region.

Ninhursag acted as mediator and brought the two sides to a peace agreement. (But, in fact, there were many more camps that evolved out of Enki and Enlil’s lineages.)

The Anunnaki had two factions fighting one another over humanity’s future. This was coded in the books as the Garden of Eden (a genetic metaphor and a literal place). Enlil didn’t want the humans to be equal to them. Enki was in favor of allowing humans self-rulership, respect and equality. In order to ensure that humans would be able to, in the long run, benefit from their ancestry, Enki (the serpent of wisdom and healing) suggested those who came to be called Adam and Eve to eat from the Tree of Knowledge.

Had they eaten only from the Tree of Life, humans would have lived a very long time, but not have been the wiser. Nor would humans have reached their own intellectual and spiritual evolution in which they would realize that they are equal to the ’gods’ who created them as new humans by virtue of their DNA.

This “trick” enraged Enlil who, from that point onward, was furious that humans mated with the Anunnaki, and he wanted to punish humanity. We see this reflected in our societies ever since as the wild drive towards materialism, or racism, or shame, or the focus on doing anything which keeps people from remembering who they are, being in denial of who they are, or angry with life – blaming The G-d.

Civilizations and religions were created by Enki and Enlil (and later their offspring). Egypt, for example, was developed by Enki and his lineage. The areas of the Sinai, Jerusalem, Sumer, India and more were fought over by the two families of Enki and Enlil, changing hands back and forth through differentPyramid Wars.

[This was the of battles of Ra/Marduk, Horus, Thoth, Inanna, Set, Osiris, and mediated into peace by Nin.]

The battle Horus fought for Ra against Seth was the first that used humans in a war with weapons, and this began wars mankind fought against itself. The war between the factions of the Anunnaki continued between humans with claims such as, “There is only One god,” or “There are many gods,” or “My god is THE god, but yours isn’t,” or “We are the chosen people, or the superior race – God told us so!”

This wasn’t from The G-d, the love-energy source of all life: instead this was more reflective of “the creator gods” who had their own beliefs, agendas. The battle between Egypt and Israel goes way back, and it was due to the control and confusion set into motion by many of these factors; extraterrestrials, angels (and messages from THE G-d), humans, mixed messages, control and fear, between worshipping Enki’s family or Enlil’s family.

Atlantis’ finally sinking was due to astronomical events combined with those humans and Anunnakis experimenting with sound technology. They didn’t plan on destroying the place – they just miscalculated. The last great flood, approximately 13,000 years ago, became a legend when Enki went against the other Anunnaki and saved humans (the Noahs of Earth) when this accident occurred. The first flood was in Lemuria and then there were others in Atlantis (several times). Those with Enki forced Enlil to help save whatever humans they could.

Enki, having felt completely disgusted and disappointed by Enlil’s fierce control, (refer to the Tower of Babel here) left Earth during the Exodus. Moses in confusion as to who he was speaking with on the mountain. He heard The G-d, messengers (Elohim and Nephilim) as a mixture. The Ten Commandments were supposedly dictated to Moses and he wrote it down, after he was taught the Hebrew alphabet and language, which he would later teach to his people. Have you ever noticed how, at this point in the Hebrew Bible, Adonai is no longer mentioned, and YHWH, Jehovah, Yahweh, is? And yet, everyone thinks they’re the same G-d. Just who is this Jehovah, YHWH? Jehovah was an agent of Enlil!

Not long after the Exodus, the other Anunnaki left their Earthly influence, and their secrets of transforming gold into the powerful substance that allowed their longevity and spiritual abilities also vanished. Their knowledge about life was held in the hands of very few who began to abuse it and became greedy. Then, in time, humans who remembered died or disappeared.

A lot of knowledge was lost. And yet, people kept trying to capture that special essence of gold in the form of statues or other such items, mistakenly believing that power equated to violence and destruction and hoarding wealth. They felt it was their key to immortality – that which would make them THE G-d. Powdered gold has beneficial properties, but the real gold is within – remembering one’s self and connection to Source. This is really what Enki had tried to infuse into people.

The Anunnaki left the Earth, in a sense, but not without creating counterparts or aspects of themselves who would reincarnate as humans in order to share the human experience with them, their oversouls.

Some of these continued the lineage through King David and Jesus. Some of these counterparts or aspects have stubbornly stuck to what they presume was Enlil’s and Marduk’s agenda to control the Earth for their own purposes, keeping humans more fearful, dependent, ignorant. Yet, others continue to share the ancient wisdom from other Anunnaki, encouraging humanity to remember their source which they can access from within their individual and collective cellular/spiritual memories in order to break the ancient and false bonds of slavery, fear and ignorance and reclaim what they feel is rightfully theirs.

Any way you look at it, the confusing, chaotic battle continues – and it doesn’t have to.

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WHAT HAPPENS NOW, ON THE FLIP SIDE?


Are these Anunnaki “gods” returning to Earth via Nibiru? (Remember – Nibiru really wasn’t the home of the Anunnaki.) “They” have never really left! First of all, they exist in many of us as a reincarnation or as aspects of them. (And boy, that’s created some sad, major identity crises.)

And as a human civilization, we have finally reached the understanding that we are more than ETs or humans, and we do have free will and choice. We can decide how WE want our experiences to be. Secondly, time exists in the third dimension but not beyond, so one can argue that everything is happening right now, but honestly, that doesn’t always change what already happened in our “past.” All that matters is NOW.

Please don’t make a big deal about the “return of Nibiru.” If you’re looking for a savior, look to yourselves. I know that the family of Anu is helping us. We are also helping the few Anunnaki and humans who are still tuck in old, negative paradigms. Whatever we, or they, do effects the whole (all of life in the cosmos). Regardless, we all have to be self-responsible. And, if one day the Anunnaki, will we still be playing out old dramas and wars? Will we be able to greet them as equals? Will we even want them to be here? Will we care, either way? Is it even possible for these old Anunnaki to return here and be as they once were?

If we want our lives to be destructive or a joyous creation, the choice is ours – truly it is. However, we have to know that our thoughts and feelings are manifesting instantaneously as our reality, so we have to be more aware than ever of what we focus on and CHOOSE what we want for ourselves. We have to know who WE are, what our own energy is like versus what another’s is like. Using our individual and collective power of choice is our means of attaining complete independence from the limitations and illusions we, or others, have imposed upon us/ourselves. After all, if we, as souls, didn’t want to be part of the Anunnaki experience, in a physical life on Earth, we wouldn’t have been. It was always a co-creation.

Some of the Anunnaki games, such as that of the needy toddler or dysfunctional adolescent, are still being played by people on Earth: who is more godly, who is more deserving, who is evil, who is powerful, who has to be punished, who gets to own that land, or “I want it, just because I want it, or because he has one!” These “gods” wanted things only “their” way.

Some people feel so badly for what they did as Anunnaki that they cover it up or punish themselves, over and over, never letting go of the past. Then there are others won’t give up on blaming the Anunnaki for making their current lives miserable, always saying, “It’s their fault. I hate them. Poor me.”

It’s time to have forgiveness, compassion, and gratitude, for them, for ourselves – all of our Selves, and become very clear what we’re doing, and why. If we are repeating old patterns, relating to any one of these Anunnaki archetypes, we have to become aware of how destructive these patterns can be. And it’s in us – from Enki to Enlil to Sin, from Marduk to Inanna, from those masquerading as the Anunnaki.

We have been repeating battles (worldwide), holding on to ancient and unhealthy grudges and dramas, martyring ourselves, fearful of letting go (because these old patterns are comfortable and familiar) and moving forward.

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IDENTITY CRISES


Which brings me to identity crises. What about people who claim they are, or were, one of these Anunnaki? There are many who do. I can tell you that I’ve met at least 5 people who all claim to be Enki, several more Inannas, and there are others who remember being Anu, Nin, and lesser known Anunnaki.

I, too, remember being part of the Anunnaki family. Sometimes these encounters and friendships have been destroyed all because of being hung up on a past identity. I’ve had confrontations and arguments with people who demand I acknowledge them as being the only Enki, or so and so. But, I can’t acknowledge it as being fact if I feel it is a delusion, a hope, a confusion.

Sometimes they are identifying with an archetype thinking it is exactly the same as the individual it symbolizes, such as the hero who builds and saves the world (Enki); the evil, selfish, destructive demon (Marduk); the wronged and martyred tantric, materialistic Queen (Inanna); the mother of all creation (Isis), and so on.

What does it mean and why are people identifying this way? That varies from person to person. Some people are actual reincarnational aspects, off-shoots of these beings and some like to believe that they were the one and only this, or that. Some were friends or family members of them, but not “them.” Some are channeling various Anunnakis.

From what I have encountered, I have not found many who were those exact, complete, real, one and only beings such as Anu reincarnated in this lifetime. I think that’s very rare. It is more common that we share in the same oversoul as one of them, which sometimes makes it feel like we were them because oversoul share information with those in it. But, if identifying with one of them is key for you in this lifetime – why is that? How are these archetypes helping you?

Is there some importance in remembering one’s personal connection with the Anunnaki? I think it relates to self-discovery, healing, and in some cases a need to feel special, important. To say “I am Enki, or Marduk, or Hathor, or the almighty YHWH, or Queen of Heaven, or Jesus/Krishna” is not being real, right now. Whether or not you were one of them, these are OLD identities and not who you, or they, are on Earth at this moment.

Even if you are a multidimensional aspect of one of them that doesn’t make you them because your focus is here. What if you were them back then? What have you learned about your experience and yourself? What if you’re only WISHING you were them? Should it matter to anyone else?

Well, many people (regardless of affiliation with the Anunnaki) still keep playing out the old roles and battles. That doesn’t mean people have to bow down and worship them or help them live in the past or an illusion of grandeur and satisfy their negative ego. Maybe there’s some denial going on, or failure to own up to what they did, or someone in their oversoul did, or think they did (when they really didn’t), once up on a time?

Okay – then it’s up to that person to deal with it or not. In the long run, it doesn’t matter anyway – that identity is not what your, or their, real essence is, nor who you are now in physicality. But, it can still help a lot to be deeply honest about it. We’re still part of everyone and All That Is and we have many lifetimes and experiences – the Anunnaki could be just one of them. It’s the importance one places on this identification and separation that could use some exploration and understanding.

Until we see this, forgive and release ourselves, and them, release the past and value our true selves, we can’t move forward; we can’t even live productively or whole in the present. Let’s clean up our act. We can re-member that we (our multidimensional selves) were and/or are of these ETs and “creator gods.” We share much of the same DNA – but THIS DOESN’T MEAN THAT WE HAVE TO REPLAY THEIR OLD BATTLES AND KEEP THEIR DYSFUNCTIONS. Let go of these old patterns. They are not our gods or goddesses, and yet they did give us much that makes us who we are today. Let’s thank them and let them go. We may share similar feelings and thoughts, but more importantly we are all from the same Source.

And actually, it doesn’t matter if we focus on that ET “stuff” within us, or not, unless one has an issue about it.

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EPILOGUE: HEALING


We are who we are right now – a combination of our past and present, creating our future selves. It is my hope that rather than focusing on hatred, fear, racism, sexism, separation, or superiority of one religion above another, humanity can release more of the old energies of false power, martyrhood, tyranny, victimhood, fear, manipulation and pain.

Then we can embrace our higher selves and the oneness of all creation, the free, creative beings that we are, appreciate our differences and what we share in common, and move into a future of more love, light, knowledge, wisdom, and joy. We have to remember that we are all human beings (little matters which color, religion, gender, and so forth), and all G-d’s creations.

The choice and opportunity is always before us to remember more of who we are. The humans rebelled against the Anunnaki along time ago and the Anunnaki left. What does this say about us? We claimed Earth and got it. We claimed our sovereignty and got it.

Why go back?

“Then he realized I indeed am this creation for I have poured it forth from myself. In that way he became this creation. And verily, he who knows this becomes in this creation, a creator.”

— The Upanishads

If you’d like a biblical reference, here’s one from Deuteronomy 30:

“For this commandment which I command thee this day, it is not hidden from thee, neither is it far off. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and cause us to hear it, that we may do it? Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and cause us to hear it, that we may do it? But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it.”

This means FIND YOUR OWN RELATIONSHIP AND DEFINITION OF GOD BY GOING WITHIN YOURSELF, AND THEREIN YOU SHALL KNOW AUTHENTIC TRUTH (BEAUTY, LOVE, AND PEACE). Don’t be afraid to be all that love and light that you are. It is your birthright.

Return

 

The Sumerians. Their History, Culture and Character

Translation by Samuel Noah Kramer

(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), PP. 17483

introductory material paraphrased and summarized

by M. Eliade from Kramer, OP. Cit., PP. 171-4

 

 

Enki, the king of the Abzu, overpowering in his majesty, speaks up with authority:
’My father, the king of the universe,
Brought me into existence in the universe,
My ancestor, the king of all the lands,
Gathered together all the, ME’s, placed the me’s in my hand.
From the Ekur, the house of Enlil,
I brought craftsmanship to my Abzu of Eridu.
I am the fecund seed, engendered by the great wild ox, I am the first born son of An,
I am the “great storm” who goes forth out of the “great below,” I am the lord of the Land,
I am the gugal of the chieftains, I am the father of all the lands,
I am the “big brother” of the gods, I am he who brings full prosperity,
I am the record keeper of heaven and earth,
I am the car and the mind of all the lands,
I am he who directs justice with the king An on An’s dais,
I am he who decrees the fates with Enlil in the “mountain of wisdom,”
He placed in my hand the decreeing of the fates of the “place where the sun rises,”
I am he to whom Nintu pays due homage,
I am he who has been called a good name by Ninhursag,
I am the leader of the Anunnaki,
I am he who has been born as the first son of the holy An.
After the lord had uttered (his) exaltedness,
After the great Prince had himself pronounced his praise,
The Anunnaki came before him in prayer and supplication:
’Lord who directs craftsmanship,
Who makes decisions, the glorified; Enki praise!’
For a second time, because of his great joy,:
Enki, the king of the Abzu, in his majesty, speaks up with authority
’I am the lord, I am one whose command is unquestioned, I am the
foremost in all things,
At my command the stalls have been built, the sheepfolds have been enclosed,
When I approached heaven a rain of prosperity poured down from heaven,
When I approached the earth, there was a high flood,
When I approached its green meadows,
The heaps and mounds were piled up at my word.

[After the almost unintelligible description of Enki’s rites, Enki proceeds to decree the fates of a number of cities. Ur is one example.]
He proceeded to the shrine Ur,
Enki, the king of the Abzu decrees its fate:
City possessing all that is appropriate, water-washed, firm-standing ox,
Dais of abundance of the highland, knees open, green like a mountain,
Hashur-grove, wide of shade-he who is lordly because of his might
Has directed your perfect ME’s,
Enlil, the “great mountain,” has pronounced your lofty -name in the universe.
City whose fate has been decreed by Enlil,
Shrine Ur, may you rise heaven high


[Enki next stocks the land with various items of prosperity: A deity is placed in charge of each. For example:]
He directed the plow and the . . . yoke,
The great prince Enki put the ’horned oxen’ in the . . . Opened the holy furrows,
Made grow the grain in the cultivated field.
The lord who do-ns the diadem, the ornament of the high plain,
The robust, the farmer of Enlil, Enkimdu, the man of the ditch and dike,
Enki placed in charge of them.
The lord called the cultivated field, put there the checkered grain,
Heaped up its . . . grain, the checkered grain, the innuba-grain into piles,
Enki multiplied the heaps and mounds,
With Enlil he spread wide the abundance in the Land,
Her whose head and side are dappled, whose face is honey-covered,
The Lady, the procreatress, the vigour of the Land, the ’life’ of the black-heads,
Ashnan, the nourishing bread, the bread of all,
Enki placed in charge of them.
He built stalls, directed the purification rites,
Erected sheepfolds, put there the best fat and milk,
Brought joy to the dining halls of the gods,
In the vegetation-like plain he made prosperity prevail.

 


 


He filled the Ehur, the house of Enlil, with possessions,
Enlil rejoiced with Enki, Nippur was joyous,
He fixed the borders, demarcated them with boundary stones,
Enki, for the Anunnaki,
Erected dwelling places in the cities,
Set up kids for them in the countryside,
The hero, the bull who comes forth out of the hashur (forest), who roars lion-like,
The valiant Utu, the bull who stands secure, who proudly displays his power,
The father of the great city, the place where the sun rises, the great herald of holy An,
The judge, the decision-maker of the gods,
Who wears a lapis lazuli beard, who comes forth from the holy heaven,
the .. . heaven,
Utu, the son born of Ningal,
Enki placed in charge of the entire universe.

 

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NORTHERN IRELAND AND OTHER CASES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT

Posted by Admin on January 30, 2011

“Is the notion of a deeply divided society the right template for comparing Northern Ireland with other cases of ethnic conflict?”

Table of contents:

Part I: Outline;

Part II: Limitation of this study:

Part III: Key words;

Part IV: General discussion;

Part V: Conclusion.

_______________________________________________________________________

 

Part I:

Outline:

The central argument of this paper revolves around the native-settler discourse of ethnic conflicts. Obviously, no conflict, ethnic or other, can happen in a vacuum and without a reason. Keeping this in mind, this paper presents the basic reasons for which major ethnic conflicts have been taking place around the world today. It presents a brief background to the ethnic conflict in Northern Ireland, mainly to understand that this is a case of a deeply divided society, for this is necessary to form the basis of the thesis topic. The next component of this paper is a presentation of the core background to some other leading ethnic conflicts around the world. The conflicts taken up in this section are South Africa, Israel/Palestine and Sri Lanka.  This is done with the intention of underscoring the essential nature of these conflicts –while being ethnic in nature, all these have happened out of a deeply divided society brought about by these ethnic aspects. More importantly, a brief explanation of the other conflicts taken up for this study is provided in view of the fact that this is meant to be a comparative paper, in which these are used as the frame of reference. The section on the background to these other conflicts is brief and is not a historical, blow-by-blow account, as it is meant to just enable an understanding of the roots of the ethnic nature of these conflicts. Then, this paper traverses into another of its central arguments –the element of territory in these conflicts. Since it is implied in this thesis statement that a) Northern Ireland’s is an ethnic conflict, and b) that other cases of ethnic conflict are a product of a deeply divided society, this paper does not explore a popular perspective on this conflict, which is whether the conflict in Northern Ireland can be classified as an ethnic one. In the concluding part, it sums up its understanding of the paper. It avoids reference to some commonly used interpretations of ethnic conflicts.

 

Part II:

Limitation of this study:

One area of incompleteness of this study is that while there are several ethnic conflicts raging on in the world at this point of time, this paper, due to the paucity of space allotted to it, makes a comparison of only a select list of these to the conflict in Northern Ireland. An inclusion of some of the other leading ethnic conflicts, such as those of the Basque region of Spain, Corsica, East Timor, Cyprus and some in Africa to name a few, would have made this paper more comprehensive.

:

Part III:

Key words:

Ethnic conflict, society, Natives, settler, commonality, land, catholic, protestant, whites, blacks, slavery, Jews, Arabs, Northern Ireland, South Africa, Israel, Palestine, Sri Lanka, persecution, Diaspora, homeland, Holy Land, Sinhalese, Tamil.

 

Part IV:

General discussion:

The ethnic conflict in Northern Ireland:

A reading of the history of Northern Ireland points to the clear fact that it is indeed a case that can be fitted into the template of a deeply divided society:  the conflict dates to almost five centuries, to the reign of Henry VIII. This Tudor monarch’s newfound zeal, the result of his break from Rome, was to make him target his neighbour, whose catholic nature he viewed as a challenge to English expansionism. It was basically a sectarian conflict, in that attempts were made by the English monarchs, led by Henry VIII and followed up later by Edward VI and Elizabeth I, to supplant the existing catholic religion with its brand of Christianity, Protestantism. Naturally, the essentially Gaelic population resented these efforts at forced Anglicanism. When these original inhabitants refused to be forcibly converted to the new religion, the English persecuted them by outlawing some of their cherished religious practices, and alienated them by developing a condescending attitude towards the followers of the scurrilously termed ‘popery’. (Finnegan, 1983, pp. 9, 10) The depths of this division took a turn for the worse following a policy of forced ‘plantation’, or augmentation of the population of the Settlers by successive English monarchs. The most notable example of this attempt to change the ethno-demographic character of the province was the one by James I, king of both the English and the Scots, to settle in about 150,000 protestant Presbyterians from Scotland into Ulster in Northern Ireland. This was a direct effort at undermining the local catholic population –the language and religious affiliation of the new Settlers were markedly different from those of the Natives. In the later part of that century, Oliver Cromwell, too, enforced this policy by rewarding these Settlers with grants of vast areas of land in Northern Ireland. The crux of the problem could be crystallised into the efforts of the native catholic population to get the Protestants out of their country, and the recalcitrance of the Settlers to stay on. (Morris-Hale, 1997, p. 95) Thus, in this sense, it qualifies as a problem of a deeply divided society.

The next section explores the similarity in the nature of this problem with some other cases of ethnic conflict in different regions of the world.

The ethnic conflict in South Africa:  Like its counterpart in Northern Ireland, the ethnic conflict in South Africa, too, is deeply rooted in the divisions of society. The origins of the ethnic conflict of this country can be traced to 1717, when the number of slaves who had been employed by the Dutch East India Company, the VOC in local parlance, was a mere 2000. That year, the company’s directors in Amsterdam asked the local administrative council of Cape if slavery was required for the company for economic reasons. Only one of the council members wanted an abolition of slavery. From here, the increase in the number of slaves working for the Settlers was dramatic –in 75 years, the number of black slaves had grown twelve-fold. This system was to get perpetrated with greater crudity and oppressiveness in the later decades and centuries: “By the mid-1700s the colony had over 650 slave owners, but more than half owned six or fewer slaves. Yet slave owning was widespread enough to promote a dependency on slave labor rather than the development of intensive settlement and agriculture. This dependency lasted into the nineteenth century and encouraged a mentality among White Settlers that certain work and occupations were “beneath” them.” (Beck, 2000, pp. 28, 29) This was to not only leave a seemingly unbridgeable gap in society between the Natives and the Settlers who came to be called Boers, it was also the forerunner to the institution of apartheid, (Pomeroy, 1986, p. 4) an abhorrent practice which came to define standards of human cruelty and oppression. This again is a clear case of a deeply divided society.

Israeli –Palestine conflict:  One of the most violent conflicts of the 20th century, the one between Israel and Palestine, is a premier example of a conflict of ethnicity and nationality being a result of a deeply divided society.

Israel was born in such circumstances that its raison d’etre was detested by its Arab neighbours. The Jews, who had been persecuted for centuries by the Christian masses of Europe in possibly every conceivable manner from being blamed for natural disasters to being degraded publicly for belonging to that religion to being tortured in gas chambers, had finally reached such a precarious stage of their existence by the time World War II ended, that they were left with no alternative to carving out a homeland for themselves. The formation of a separate Jewish nation, they believed, was the only guarantee of their very survival. That homeland had to be the biblical land of Israel, or none else, given the primacy of this nation to their history and culture; unfortunately for them, this was now Palestine, into which Arabs had been ossified for a full 13 centuries, ever since the birth of their own religion, Islam. The declaration of Israeli independence on May 14, 1948, was the culmination of a nearly 19-century old cherished dream of a motherland, and achieved after a lot of bickering in the United Nations. In this declaration, they made clear that for the Jews to become a cohesive nation for the first time in their history out of the reassembly of their people from their Diaspora, there was only one possibility: the existence of the new immigrants at the exclusion of the native population! The following words in the declaration sums up the belligerent Jewish attitude, overlooking the fact that the Holy Land was in Arab possession for all these centuries:

“…WE, THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL, REPRESENTING THE JEWISH PEOPLE IN PALESTINE AND THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT OF THE WORLD, MET TOGETHER IN SOLEMN ASSEMBLY TODAY, THE DAY OF THE TERMINATION OF THE BRITISH MANDATE FOR PALESTINE, AND BY VIRTUE OF THE NATURAL AND HISTORIC RIGHT OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE AND OF THE RESOLUTION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS, HEREBY PROCLAIM THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE JEWISH STATE IN PALESTINE, TO BE CALLED ISRAEL.” (Dunner, 1950, pp 3-18 and 87-94)

Naturally, this was at direct loggerheads with the native population, which saw this as an intrusion into their very existence. A strange situation had developed, by which two nationalities were trying to compete for existence and survival on the same piece of land to the mutual elimination of each other. Both the cause and result of this was the inculcation of deep-seated animosities, which continue to this day.

The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka:  The Sri Lankan or Ceylonese ethnic conflict dates to the early part of the previous century. It was fed and exacerbated by a threat perception felt by the land-owning and economically well ensconced, western-educated, mostly Sinhalese native elite on account of the assertiveness of the plantation workers of Indian origin following the departure of the colonial power, Britain. As explained by Perera (1998), although the land mass left behind by the colonizers was nowhere near what it was when it was first occupied, “…the post-colonial rulers of Ceylon, (the Sinhalese elite)… were not ready to accept the plantation workers of southern Indian origin, classifying them as “Indian Tamils” and reaffirmed that they were a foreign population…[w]ithin two years, the United National Party government of 1948 deprived the plantation workers of southern Indian origin of both their citizenship and voting rights. They had already participated in the socialist-led struggles for independence in the 1940s and their voting pattern had helped many socialist candidates win in the 1947 elections. If anti-colonial struggles had brought these plantation workers into Ceylonese politics and the “national” space, the post-colonial state denied these. As the planters had attempted, the post-colonial rulers of Ceylon also resorted to apartheid…” (Perera, 1998, pp. 102, 103) Further proof of the deep division of the society along ethnic lines is the fact that the Tamils have been living in Sri Lanka for ages, and have been in a majority in at least four northern districts. It is these four districts that the Tamils claim as their ‘traditional homeland’, the Tamil ‘Ealam’, for the reason that there was hardly a presence of the Sinhalese in these areas till independence. (Kearney & Miller, 1987, pp. 91-94)

 

Some researchers, such as Mitchell (2000), have taken the view that while these conflicts taken up for this study (with the exception of Sri Lanka) are essentially ethnic, what marks these out is the fact that they have a strong sub-element of native-settler conflict. Elaborating, he theorises that this is a case in which animosities and attitudes have hardened since the settler has stayed back, and has sought to coexist with the native population. This, according to Mitchell, is as strong a common factor as is the element of ethnicity in the cases he takes up. This is different from cases such as Australia, America, Canada and New Zealand, in which the Natives were all but extirpated. This aspect of the native-settler coexistence, no matter how tumultuous it may have been, is the main commonality among these conflicts. All cases of ethnic conflict in which the Settlers have stayed back have an indispensable element –land issues. In most cases, land has been pivotal to the affairs of the ethnic conflict, because the Natives have been relegated to inferior lands. Another feeling that has run through the colonisers is the feeling of superiority to the Natives, irrespective of whether the Settlers belonged to the same race as the Natives or not. This is the feeling that the Irish war of independence failed to correct. (Mitchell, 2000, pp. 1 and 2) In all the cases of ethnic conflict taken up here, the Settlers have arrived with the aim of betterment, with varying degrees. It is natural that the bone of contention had to be land, since it was natural resources that were the means for a betterment of life. This is the basis for which dispute over territory has been an integral part of these conflicts.

Conclusion: In all these societies taken for this study, the extent of deep divisions in society can be gauged from the fact that irrespective of the point of time of the country’s history at which these conflicts have started, these conflicts have come to be the defining moments of these nations –the ethnic conflict in Northern Ireland may not be as old as the country itself, but nearly five centuries have failed to erase these divisions. In the case of South Africa, apartheid and ethnic conflict have been present almost from the time the white minority came to dominate the country; as for Israel, the warring parties have had to contend with ethnic conflict quite literally from day one of the birth and existence of a Jewish nation. In Sri Lanka, the feeling of ‘them and us’ has been persisting from the time the Tamils settled there, and all it took was the spark of the departure of the colonists to ignite it and make it a full-scale conflagration.

These conflicts have different sub-dimensions that mark them out from each other. For instance, if the conflicts in Northern Ireland and Israel are essentially predicated along nationalist and religious lines, that in South Africa is centred round the colour of the skin, while the conflict in Sri Lanka is ethno-linguistic in character. Yet, the overriding common factor has been the deep divisions between the Natives and the Settlers. Whatever the nature of these elements of conflict, these have at best been sub-components of the conflict, whose main theme is undoubtedly the deep divisions in society. It is exactly these divisions that have not only caused the conflict in the first place, they have nurtured and sustained them.

In fact, so deep are the divisions of the mind that even as late as 1994, when the official obituary was written for apartheid in South Africa,  “…emotionally far too many whites, even liberal whites, still regard(ed) themselves as superior to blacks and far too many of them only accepted the changes that came in 1994 because they could see no alternative rather than because they actively believed in a non-racial society.” (Arnold, 2000, p. 11) It can be said without much fear of contradiction that the same attitude could possibly be prevailing in the other societies taken up here. In sum, it can be fittingly argued that the notion of a deeply divided society is the basis on which all ethnic conflicts of this study have taken place; there is little in Northern Ireland to suggest any radical departure from this norm.

Written By Ravindra G Rao

References

 

 

Arnold, G., 2000, The New South Africa, Macmillan, Basingstoke.

 

Beck, R. B., 2000, The History of South Africa, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

 

Dunner, J., 1950, The Republic of Israel: Its History and Its Promise, Whittlesey House, New York.

 

Finnegan, R. B., 1983, The Challenge of Conflict and Change The Challenge of Conflict and Change, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

 

Kearney, R. N., & Miller, B. D., 1987, Internal Migration in Sri Lanka and Its Social Consequences, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

 

Mitchell, T. G., 2000, Native vs. Settler: Ethnic Conflict in Israel/Palestine, Northern Ireland, and South Africa, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

 

Morris-Hale, W., 1997, Conflict and Harmony in Multi-Ethnic Societies: An International Perspective, Peter Lang, New York.

 

Perera, N., 1998, Society and Space: Colonialism, Nationalism, and Postcolonial Identity in Sri Lanka, Perseus, Boulder, CO.

 

Pomeroy, W. J., 1986, Apartheid, Imperialism, and African Freedom (1st ed.), International Publishers Co., New York.

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Nelson Mandela returns home, ‘breathing on his own’

Posted by Admin on January 29, 2011

President Bill Clinton with Nelson Mandela, Ju...

Nelson Mandela

http://in.news.yahoo.com/nelson-mandela-returns-home-breathing-own-20110128-222340-457.html

By ANI | ANI – Sat, Jan 29 11:53 AM IST

Johannesburg, Jan 29 (ANI): Former South African President Nelson Mandela, who was successfully treated for breathing difficulties during a two-day stay in hospital, has been discharged and is breathing on his own.

Mandela returned to his home in Houghton on Friday for home-based care of a respiratory infection.

South Africa’s Surgeon General Lieutenant General Vejaynand Ramlakan said the icon had suffered an acute respiratory infection, but he was now sufficiently well to be treated at home, ending prolonged uncertainty about his health.

“He has been discharged. Dr Mandela is in high spirits. For a 92-year-old, he surprises us on a daily basis with his powers of recovery,” said Dr. Vejaynand Ramlakan.

Mandela’s admission had brought an outpouring of good wishes for a speedy recovery, and criticism over information black-out on his condition.

In a briefing on his condition at the hospital, Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe said: “Madiba is well… and that should reassure all of us that there is no need for us to panic, there is no need for us to fear for Madiba’s health.”

Earlier, Ramlakan told the briefing that Mandela had received treatment and had responded very well, News24 reports.

The convoy, which led him from the hospital, included the department of defence and military veterans, which is responsible for the well being of former presidents, and bodyguards. (ANI)

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